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J Vet Intern Med. 2015 May-Jun;29(3):855-61. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12600. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Changes in systolic blood pressure over time in healthy cats and cats with chronic kidney disease.

Author information

1
Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK.
2
Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK.
3
Research Support Office, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hypertension is a common problem in older cats, most often associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cross-sectional studies have suggested that blood pressure in cats increases with age.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES:

To determine whether blood pressure in cats increases with age and whether this occurs independently of the presence of CKD. To investigate risk factors for developing hypertension.

ANIMALS/SUBJECTS:

Two hundred and sixty-five cats with CKD and 133 healthy cats ≥9 years were retrospectively identified.

METHODS:

Four groups were created according to status at initial evaluation (CKD or healthy) and blood pressure at the last included visit (normotensive [NT] or developed hypertension [DH]): Healthy-NT, Healthy-DH, CKD-NT and CKD-DH. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) over time slopes were compared with 0 and between groups. Risk factors for the development of hypertension were investigated, and associations of biochemical and clinical variables with SBP were examined.

RESULTS:

Cats that were hypertensive at CKD diagnosis (n = 105) were not included in further analyses. Twenty-seven cats with CKD and 9 healthy cats developed hypertension ≥3 months after diagnosis of CKD or their first visit. Systolic blood pressure significantly increased with age in all cats (P < .001). Healthy cats were at less risk than cats with CKD to become hypertensive (hazard ratio 0.2, P < .001), with creatinine being an independent risk factor for the development of hypertension.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:

The high prevalence of hypertension in azotemic cats in this study shows the importance of monitoring of SBP in elderly cats, and in particular in cats with CKD.

KEYWORDS:

Feline; Hypertension; Renal disease; Risk factors

PMID:
25917326
PMCID:
PMC4895402
DOI:
10.1111/jvim.12600
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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