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J Affect Disord. 2015 Aug 1;181:41-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.04.007. Epub 2015 Apr 11.

Mental health self-management questionnaire: Development and psychometric properties.

Author information

Département de psychologie, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
Faculté des sciences infirmières, Université Laval, Canada.
Département de médecine de famille et de médecine d׳urgence, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada.
École de psychologie, Université Laval, Canada.
Département de psychologie, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada. Electronic address:



Through self-management, people living with depression, anxiety or bipolar disorders can play an active role in their recovery. However, absence of a validated questionnaire limits empirical research on self-management. The study aimed to develop a French instrument, the Mental Health Self-Management Questionnaire (MHSQ), and to investigate its psychometric properties


A pool of 86 items was created based on a qualitative study with 50 people in recovery from depression, anxiety or bipolar disorders. The 64 most pertinent items were identified following ratings from 14 experts. A sample of 149 people in recovery completed these items and criterion-related measures (specific aspects of self-management, clinical and personal recovery, social desirability), and 93 participants also completed MHSQ two weeks later


Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses show that MHSQ is composed of three subscales: Clinical (getting help and using resources), Empowerment (building upon strengths and positive self-concept to gain control) and Vitality (active and healthy lifestyle). These subscales had satisfying consistency and test-retest reliability, and were mostly unrelated to social desirability. Correlations with criterion variables support convergent and concurrent validity, especially for Empowerment and Vitality. Comparison of structural models provides evidence of the distinct nature of MHSQ in comparison to the constructs of clinical and personal recovery


Longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed to explore the validity of MHSQ for predicting recovery over time


MHSQ is a psychometrically-sound instrument, useful for establishing the role of self-management in recovery and monitoring the efficacy of self-management support programs.


Common mental disorder; Personal recovery; Questionnaire; Self-management; Symptom severity; Well-being

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