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J Food Sci. 2015 Jun;80(6):T1432-7. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12864. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Influences of Operating Parameters on the Formation of Furan During Heating Based on Models of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

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State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330047, China.
Canadian Food and Wine Institute, Niagara College, 135 Taylor Road, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, LOS 1JO, Canada.
School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland, New Zealand.


Furan, a possible carcinogen, is commonly produced by thermal processing in a number of heated foods. The existence of furan levels in foods has attracted considerable attention worldwide. Recent research of furan in food has focused on the possible influences of operating parameters on the furan formation during heat processing. The aim of our study was to investigate the impacts of multiple factors (pH, temperature, heating time, ferric, and glutamic acid) on furan formation using linolenic and linoleic acids-based model systems in which furan was analyzed by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). The results revealed that the content of furan increased rapidly when the heating temperature was elevated, with the highest levels of furan in neutral buffer solutions, the furan levels were also found to be related to heating time in all model systems. Ferric promoted furan formation from polyunsaturated fatty acids, conversely glutamic acid with an optimum concentration suppressed the furan formation. The minimal level of furan in foods during thermal treatment could be achieved via adding furan formation suppressors, and/or avoidance of furan forming promoter.


Furan; headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS); influence factor; model systems; polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)

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