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J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2015 Jul;76(4):303-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1373664. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Accuracy with Dynamic Electromyography: The Early Experience of a Traditionally Open Spine Surgeon.

Author information

1
Department of Neuroscience Institute, Epworth Hospital, Richmond, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
2
Department of Clinical Affairs, NuVasive Australia & NZ Pty Ltd, Victoria, Australia.
3
Department of Primary Healthcare Imaging, Epworth Hospital, Victoria, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS:

The learning curve associated with the adoption of minimally invasive surgery techniques has limited its adoption by many traditionally open surgeons. The use of dynamic electromyography (EMG) to guide the placement of percutaneous pedicle screws (PS) can lessen the learning curve by providing real-time feedback on neural proximity relative to the screw. This study aimed to investigate the safety and accuracy of a single surgeon's experience transitioning from open pedicle screws (OS) to PS using intraoperative fluoroscopy and dynamic EMG.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Forty consecutive patients were treated with EMG and fluoroscopy-guided PS placement by a single surgeon and followed through a prospective registry. This was cross-referenced with a cohort of 53 consecutive patients treated with OS in 2011. Computed tomography was used to check the screw position 1 day after surgery. A misplaced pedicle screw was defined as a breach of the pedicle wall. The accuracy of PS placement in association with dynamic EMG was compared with that of OS.

RESULTS:

A total of 204 PS were inserted in the study cohort with 97.5% accuracy. Five (2.5%) were misplaced (three medial and two lateral). All three medial screws displayed a caution message (yellow: 8mA) on insertion. No screw caused visceral or neurologic complications postoperatively, and none required revision. In the OS cohort, 254 screws were placed with 94.9% accuracy, 13 (5.1%) were misplaced (8 medial, 3 lateral, and 2 superior), and 3 (1.2%) required revision.

CONCLUSIONS:

Dynamic EMG combined with intraoperative fluoroscopy and advanced instrumentation provides a safe, real-time, and accurate method for PS placement.

PMID:
25915498
DOI:
10.1055/s-0034-1373664
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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