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Hippocampus. 2015 Dec;25(12):1489-500. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22469. Epub 2015 Jun 2.

Grid cells in 3-D: Reconciling data and models.

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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.
Department of Psychology, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.


It is well documented that place cells and grid cells in echolocating bats show properties similar to those described in rodents, and yet, continuous theta-frequency oscillations, proposed to play a central role in grid/place cell formation, are not present in bat recordings. These comparative neurophysiological data have raised many questions about the role of theta-frequency oscillations in spatial memory and navigation. Additionally, spatial navigation in three-dimensions poses new challenges for the representation of space in neural models. Inspired by the literature on space representation in the echolocating bat, we have developed a nonoscillatory model of 3-D grid cell creation that shares many of the features of existing oscillatory-interference models. We discuss the model in the context of current knowledge of 3-D space representation and highlight directions for future research.


bat; grid cells; hippocampus; place cells; space representation

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