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Cell. 2015 May 7;161(4):803-16. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.04.012. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

Neuronal Activity Promotes Glioma Growth through Neuroligin-3 Secretion.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
2
Nancy Pritzker Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
3
Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
4
Department of Neurology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
5
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA.
6
Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
7
Department of Neurology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address: mmonje@stanford.edu.

Abstract

Active neurons exert a mitogenic effect on normal neural precursor and oligodendroglial precursor cells, the putative cellular origins of high-grade glioma (HGG). By using optogenetic control of cortical neuronal activity in a patient-derived pediatric glioblastoma xenograft model, we demonstrate that active neurons similarly promote HGG proliferation and growth in vivo. Conditioned medium from optogenetically stimulated cortical slices promoted proliferation of pediatric and adult patient-derived HGG cultures, indicating secretion of activity-regulated mitogen(s). The synaptic protein neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) was identified as the leading candidate mitogen, and soluble NLGN3 was sufficient and necessary to promote robust HGG cell proliferation. NLGN3 induced PI3K-mTOR pathway activity and feedforward expression of NLGN3 in glioma cells. NLGN3 expression levels in human HGG negatively correlated with patient overall survival. These findings indicate the important role of active neurons in the brain tumor microenvironment and identify secreted NLGN3 as an unexpected mechanism promoting neuronal activity-regulated cancer growth.

PMID:
25913192
PMCID:
PMC4447122
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2015.04.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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