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Nutrients. 2015 Apr 22;7(4):3011-21. doi: 10.3390/nu7043011.

Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D regulation of T cells.

Author information

1
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. mxc69@psu.edu.
2
Center for Molecular Immunology and Infectious Disease, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. mxc69@psu.edu.
3
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. lms496@psu.edu.
4
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. yxl254@psu.edu.
5
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. lyang1@hmc.psu.edu.

Abstract

Vitamin D is a direct and indirect regulator of T cells. The mechanisms by which vitamin D directly regulates T cells are reviewed and new primary data on the effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) on human invariant natural killer (iNK)T cells is presented. The in vivo effects of vitamin D on murine T cells include inhibition of T cell proliferation, inhibition of IFN-γ, IL-17 and induction of IL-4. Experiments in mice demonstrate that the effectiveness of 1,25(OH)2D requires NKT cells, IL-10, the IL-10R and IL-4. Comparisons of mouse and human T cells show that 1,25(OH)2D inhibits IL-17 and IFN-γ, and induces T regulatory cells and IL-4. IL-4 was induced by 1,25(OH)2D in mouse and human iNKT cells. Activation for 72 h was required for optimal expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in human and mouse T and iNKT cells. In addition, T cells are potential autocrine sources of 1,25(OH)2D but again only 48-72 h after activation. Together the data support the late effects of vitamin D on diseases like inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis where reducing IL-17 and IFN-γ, while inducing IL-4 and IL-10, would be beneficial.

PMID:
25912039
PMCID:
PMC4425186
DOI:
10.3390/nu7043011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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