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Trends Genet. 2015 Jul;31(7):382-92. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2015.03.013. Epub 2015 Apr 21.

Somatic mosaicism: implications for disease and transmission genetics.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
2
Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Program in Structural and Computational Biology and Molecular Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Statistics, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA.
3
Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address: jlupski@bcm.edu.

Erratum in

Abstract

Nearly all of the genetic material among cells within an organism is identical. However, single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions/deletions (indels), copy-number variants (CNVs), and other structural variants (SVs) continually accumulate as cells divide during development. This process results in an organism composed of countless cells, each with its own unique personal genome. Thus, every human is undoubtedly mosaic. Mosaic mutations can go unnoticed, underlie genetic disease or normal human variation, and may be transmitted to the next generation as constitutional variants. We review the influence of the developmental timing of mutations, the mechanisms by which they arise, methods for detecting mosaic variants, and the risk of passing these mutations on to the next generation.

KEYWORDS:

mosaicism; postzygotic mutation; recurrence risk; somatic mosaicism; transmission genetics

PMID:
25910407
PMCID:
PMC4490042
DOI:
10.1016/j.tig.2015.03.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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