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Genome Biol. 2015 Apr 24;16:76. doi: 10.1186/s13059-015-0623-3.

The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization.

Sadd BM1,2, Barribeau SM3,4, Bloch G5, de Graaf DC6, Dearden P7, Elsik CG8,9, Gadau J10, Grimmelikhuijzen CJ11, Hasselmann M12, Lozier JD13, Robertson HM14, Smagghe G15, Stolle E16, Van Vaerenbergh M17, Waterhouse RM18,19,20,21, Bornberg-Bauer E22, Klasberg S23, Bennett AK24, Câmara F25,26, Guigó R27,28, Hoff K29, Mariotti M30,31, Munoz-Torres M32,33, Murphy T34, Santesmasses D35,36, Amdam GV37,38, Beckers M39, Beye M40, Biewer M41,42, Bitondi MM43, Blaxter ML44, Bourke AF45, Brown MJ46, Buechel SD47, Cameron R48, Cappelle K49, Carolan JC50, Christiaens O51, Ciborowski KL52, Clarke DF53, Colgan TJ54, Collins DH55, Cridge AG56, Dalmay T57, Dreier S58, du Plessis L59,60,61, Duncan E62, Erler S63, Evans J64, Falcon T65, Flores K66, Freitas FC67, Fuchikawa T68,69, Gempe T70, Hartfelder K71, Hauser F72, Helbing S73, Humann FC74, Irvine F75, Jermiin LS76, Johnson CE14, Johnson RM77, Jones AK78, Kadowaki T79, Kidner JH80, Koch V81, Köhler A82, Kraus FB83,84, Lattorff HM85,86, Leask M87, Lockett GA88, Mallon EB89, Antonio DS90, Marxer M91, Meeus I92, Moritz RF93, Nair A94, Näpflin K95, Nissen I96, Niu J97, Nunes FM98, Oakeshott JG99, Osborne A100, Otte M101, Pinheiro DG102, Rossié N103, Rueppell O104, Santos CG105, Schmid-Hempel R106, Schmitt BD107, Schulte C108, Simões ZL109, Soares MP110, Swevers L111, Winnebeck EC112, Wolschin F113,114, Yu N115, Zdobnov EM116,117, Aqrawi PK118, Blankenburg KP119, Coyle M120, Francisco L121, Hernandez AG122, Holder M123, Hudson ME124, Jackson L125, Jayaseelan J126, Joshi V127, Kovar C128, Lee SL129, Mata R130, Mathew T131, Newsham IF132, Ngo R133, Okwuonu G134, Pham C135, Pu LL136, Saada N137, Santibanez J138, Simmons D139, Thornton R140, Venkat A141, Walden KK142, Wu YQ143, Debyser G144, Devreese B145, Asher C146, Blommaert J147, Chipman AD148, Chittka L149, Fouks B150,151, Liu J152,153, O'Neill MP154, Sumner S155, Puiu D156, Qu J157, Salzberg SL158, Scherer SE159, Muzny DM160, Richards S161, Robinson GE162, Gibbs RA163, Schmid-Hempel P164, Worley KC165.

Author information

1
School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, 61790, USA. bmsadd@ilstu.edu.
2
Experimental Ecology, Institute of Integrative Biology, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, CH-8092, Zürich, Switzerland. bmsadd@ilstu.edu.
3
Experimental Ecology, Institute of Integrative Biology, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, CH-8092, Zürich, Switzerland. BARRIBEAUS14@ecu.edu.
4
Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, 27858, USA. BARRIBEAUS14@ecu.edu.
5
Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. guy.bloch@mail.huji.ac.il.
6
Laboratory of Zoophysiology, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S2, 9000, Ghent, Belgium. Dirk.deGraaf@UGent.be.
7
Laboratory for Evolution and Development, Genetics Otago and the National Research Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. peter.dearden@otago.ac.nz.
8
Division of Animal Sciences, Division of Plant Sciences, and MU Informatics Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA. elsikc@missouri.edu.
9
Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 20057, USA. elsikc@missouri.edu.
10
School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA. jgadau@asu.edu.
11
Center for Functional and Comparative Insect Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. cgrimmelikhuijzen@bio.ku.dk.
12
University of Hohenheim, Institute of Animal Science, Garbenstrasse 17, 70599, Stuttgart, Germany. martin.hasselmann@uni-hohenheim.de.
13
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, 35487, USA. jlozier@as.ua.edu.
14
Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA. hughrobe@uiuc.edu.
15
Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. guy.smagghe@ugent.be.
16
Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Wittenberg, Germany. eckart.stolle@zoologie.uni-halle.de.
17
Laboratory of Zoophysiology, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S2, 9000, Ghent, Belgium. Matthias.VanVaerenbergh@UGent.be.
18
Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211, Geneva, Switzerland. robert.waterhouse@unige.ch.
19
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211, Geneva, Switzerland. robert.waterhouse@unige.ch.
20
Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 32 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA. robert.waterhouse@unige.ch.
21
The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA. robert.waterhouse@unige.ch.
22
Westfalian Wilhelms University, Institute of Evolution and Biodiversity, Huefferstrasse 1, 48149, Muenster, Germany. ebb.admin@wwu.de.
23
Westfalian Wilhelms University, Institute of Evolution and Biodiversity, Huefferstrasse 1, 48149, Muenster, Germany. s.klasberg@uni-muenster.de.
24
Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 20057, USA. genetics.gal@gmail.com.
25
Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Dr. Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. francisco.camara@crg.eu.
26
Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain. francisco.camara@crg.eu.
27
Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Dr. Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. roderic.guigo@crg.eu.
28
Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain. roderic.guigo@crg.eu.
29
Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, Walther-Rathenau-Str. 47, 17487, Greifswald, Germany. katharina.hoff@uni-greifswald.de.
30
Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Dr. Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. marco.mariotti.mm@gmail.com.
31
Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain. marco.mariotti.mm@gmail.com.
32
Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 20057, USA. monica.cecilia@gmail.com.
33
Genomics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA. monica.cecilia@gmail.com.
34
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, USA. murphyte@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
35
Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Dr. Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. didac.santesmasses@crg.eu.
36
Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain. didac.santesmasses@crg.eu.
37
School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA. Gro.Amdam@asu.edu.
38
Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Food Science, N-1432, Aas, Norway. Gro.Amdam@asu.edu.
39
School of Computing Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK. m.beckers@uea.ac.uk.
40
Institute of Evolutionary Genetics, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany. martin.beye@uni-duesseldorf.de.
41
University of Hohenheim, Institute of Animal Science, Garbenstrasse 17, 70599, Stuttgart, Germany. mbiewer@uni-koeln.de.
42
University of Cologne, Institute of Genetics, Cologne, Germany. mbiewer@uni-koeln.de.
43
Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-901, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. mmgbit@usp.br.
44
Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Edinburgh Genomics, The Ashworth Laboratories, The King's Buildings, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FL, UK. mark.blaxter@ed.ac.uk.
45
School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK. a.bourke@uea.ac.uk.
46
School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, London, UK. mark.brown@rhul.ac.uk.
47
Experimental Ecology, Institute of Integrative Biology, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, CH-8092, Zürich, Switzerland. s.d.buechel@gmail.com.
48
Laboratory for Evolution and Development, Genetics Otago and the National Research Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. rosannah45@gmail.com.
49
Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA. Kaat.Cappelle@UGent.be.
50
Maynooth University Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Co, Kildare, Ireland. James.Carolan@nuim.ie.
51
Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. olchrist.christiaens@ugent.be.
52
School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, UK. kate.ciborowski@googlemail.com.
53
Land and Water Flagship CSIRO, Canberra, Australia. david.clarke@csiro.au.
54
Department of Zoology, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. tcolgan@tcd.ie.
55
School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK. david.collins@uea.ac.uk.
56
Laboratory for Evolution and Development, Genetics Otago and the National Research Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. andrew.cridge@otago.ac.nz.
57
School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK. t.dalmay@uea.ac.uk.
58
Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London, NW1 4RY, UK. stephaniedreier21@gmail.com.
59
Theoretical Biology, Institute of Integrative Biology, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, CH-8092, Zürich, Switzerland. louis.duplessis@env.ethz.ch.
60
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland. louis.duplessis@env.ethz.ch.
61
Computational Evolution, Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, ETH Zürich, Basel, Switzerland. louis.duplessis@env.ethz.ch.
62
Laboratory for Evolution and Development, Genetics Otago and the National Research Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. elizabeth.duncan@otago.ac.nz.
63
Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Wittenberg, Germany. silvio.erler@zoologie.uni-halle.de.
64
USDA-ARS Bee Research Laboratory, Maryland, USA. jay.evans@ars.usda.gov.
65
Departamento de Genética, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-900, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. tiagofalcon@usp.br.
66
Center for Research in Scientific Computation, North Carolina State University Raleigh, Raleigh, NC, USA. kbflores@ncsu.edu.
67
Departamento de Genética, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-900, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. flaviacpfreitas@gmail.com.
68
Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. oioitaro@gmail.com.
69
Laboratory of Insect Ecology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. oioitaro@gmail.com.
70
Institute of Evolutionary Genetics, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany. tanja.gempe@uni-duesseldorf.de.
71
Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-900, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. klaus@fmrp.usp.br.
72
Center for Functional and Comparative Insect Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. fhauser@bio.ku.dk.
73
Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Wittenberg, Germany. sophie.helbing@zoologie.uni-halle.de.
74
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, 15991-502, Matão, Brazil. fchumann@ifsp.edu.br.
75
Laboratory for Evolution and Development, Genetics Otago and the National Research Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. franoirvine@gmail.com.
76
Land and Water Flagship CSIRO, Canberra, Australia. lars.jermiin@csiro.au.
77
Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, 44791, USA. johnson.5005@osu.edu.
78
Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK. a.jones@brookes.ac.uk.
79
Department of Biological Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China. Tatsuhiko.Kadowaki@xjtlu.edu.cn.
80
Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Wittenberg, Germany. jonathan.kidner@zoologie.uni-halle.de.
81
Institute of Evolutionary Genetics, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany. vasco.koch@uni-duesseldorf.de.
82
Institute of Evolutionary Genetics, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany. arian.koehler@uni-duesseldorf.de.
83
Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Wittenberg, Germany. kraus@zoologie.uni-halle.de.
84
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Halle, Germany. kraus@zoologie.uni-halle.de.
85
Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Wittenberg, Germany. lattorff@zoologie.uni-halle.de.
86
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. lattorff@zoologie.uni-halle.de.
87
Laboratory for Evolution and Development, Genetics Otago and the National Research Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. megan.leask@gmail.com.
88
University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. g.a.lockett@soton.ac.uk.
89
Department of Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK. ebm3@le.ac.uk.
90
Departamento de Genética, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-900, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. dsmarcoantonio@usp.br.
91
Experimental Ecology, Institute of Integrative Biology, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, CH-8092, Zürich, Switzerland. monika.marxer@env.ethz.ch.
92
Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. ivan.meeus@UGent.be.
93
Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Wittenberg, Germany. robin.moritz@zoologie.uni-halle.de.
94
Laboratory for Evolution and Development, Genetics Otago and the National Research Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. ajay.nair14@me.com.
95
Experimental Ecology, Institute of Integrative Biology, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, CH-8092, Zürich, Switzerland. kathrin.naepflin@env.ethz.ch.
96
Institute of Evolutionary Genetics, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany. inganissen@gmx.net.
97
Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. jinzhi.niu@ugent.be.
98
Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905, São Carlos, Brazil. francis.nunes@ufscar.br.
99
Land and Water Flagship CSIRO, Canberra, Australia. john.oakeshott@csiro.au.
100
Laboratory for Evolution and Development, Genetics Otago and the National Research Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. amy.osborne@otago.ac.nz.
101
Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Wittenberg, Germany. marianne.otte@email.de.
102
Departamento de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14884-900, Jaboticabal, Brazil. dgpinheiro@fcav.unesp.br.
103
Institute of Evolutionary Genetics, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany. rossie@uni-duesseldorf.de.
104
Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 321 McIver Street, Greensboro, NC, 27403, USA. olav_rueppell@uncg.edu.
105
Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-900, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. cgsbio@gmail.com.
106
Experimental Ecology, Institute of Integrative Biology, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, CH-8092, Zürich, Switzerland. rsh@env.ethz.ch.
107
Institute of Evolutionary Genetics, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany. Bjoern.Schmitt@uni-duesseldorf.de.
108
Institute of Evolutionary Genetics, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany. Christina.Schulte@uni-duesseldorf.de.
109
Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-901, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. zlpsimoe@usp.br.
110
Departamento de Genética, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-900, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. miprioli@gmail.com.
111
Institute of Biosciences & Applications, National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Athens, Greece. swevers@bio.demokritos.gr.
112
Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany. eva.winnebeck@med.lmu.de.
113
School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA. f.wolschin@gmail.com.
114
Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Food Science, N-1432, Aas, Norway. f.wolschin@gmail.com.
115
Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. na.yu@ugent.be.
116
Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211, Geneva, Switzerland. Evgeny.Zdobnov@unige.ch.
117
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211, Geneva, Switzerland. Evgeny.Zdobnov@unige.ch.
118
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. uhpesh@gmail.com.
119
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. kerstinb@bcm.edu.
120
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. mcoyle@bcm.edu.
121
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. franciscol@livemail.uthscsa.edu.
122
Roy J. Carver Biotechnology Center, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA. aghernan@illinois.edu.
123
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. mholder@bcm.edu.
124
Department of Crop Sciences and Institute of Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA. mhudson@illinois.edu.
125
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. larondaj@bcm.edu.
126
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. jayaseel@bcm.edu.
127
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. vanditajoshi@gmail.com.
128
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. ckovar@bcm.edu.
129
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. sllee@bcm.edu.
130
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. Robert.mata.jr@gmail.com.
131
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. Tittu.Mathew@bcm.edu.
132
Molecular Genetic Technology Program, School of Health Professions, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 2, Houston, TX, 77025, USA. inewsham@mdanderson.org.
133
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. bearrnn@hotmail.com.
134
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. gokwuonu@bcm.edu.
135
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. c.duy.pham@gmail.com.
136
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. lpu1562633518@gmail.com.
137
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. nehads@bcm.edu.
138
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. jirehs@bcm.edu.
139
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. DeNard.Simmons@utsa.edu.
140
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. rthornto@bcm.edu.
141
Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. aartiv@uchicago.edu.
142
Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA. k-walden@life.illinois.edu.
143
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. ywu@mdanderson.org.
144
Laboratory of Protein Biochemistry and Biomolecular Engineering, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000, Ghent, Belgium. Griet.Debyser@UGent.be.
145
Laboratory of Protein Biochemistry and Biomolecular Engineering, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000, Ghent, Belgium. Bart.Devreese@UGent.be.
146
Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London, NW1 4RY, UK. Claireasher13@gmail.com.
147
Laboratory for Evolution and Development, Genetics Otago and the National Research Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. julie.blommaert@xtra.co.nz.
148
Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. ariel.chipman@mail.huji.ac.il.
149
Department of Biological and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS, UK. l.chittka@qmul.ac.uk.
150
Institute of Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Wittenberg, Germany. bertrand.fouks@zoologie.uni-halle.de.
151
Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 321 McIver Street, Greensboro, NC, 27403, USA. bertrand.fouks@zoologie.uni-halle.de.
152
Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. jasonleu.jisheng.liu@gmail.com.
153
School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China. jasonleu.jisheng.liu@gmail.com.
154
Laboratory for Evolution and Development, Genetics Otago and the National Research Centre for Growth and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand. meaghan.p.oneill@gmail.com.
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School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, UK. Seirian.Sumner@Bristol.ac.uk.
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Center for Computational Biology, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA. dpuiu@jhu.edu.
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Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. jiaxinqu@yahoo.com.
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Center for Computational Biology, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA. salzberg@jhu.edu.
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School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China. sscherer@bcm.edu.
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Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. donnam@bcm.edu.
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Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. stephenr@bcm.edu.
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Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, Department of Entomology, Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA. generobi@illinois.edu.
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Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. agibbs@bcm.edu.
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Experimental Ecology, Institute of Integrative Biology, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, CH-8092, Zürich, Switzerland. psh@env.ethz.ch.
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Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, MS BCM226, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. kworley@bcm.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats.

RESULTS:

We report the high quality draft genome sequences of Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, two ecologically dominant bumblebees and widely utilized study species. Comparing these new genomes to those of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera and other Hymenoptera, we identify deeply conserved similarities, as well as novelties key to the biology of these organisms. Some honeybee genome features thought to underpin advanced eusociality are also present in bumblebees, indicating an earlier evolution in the bee lineage. Xenobiotic detoxification and immune genes are similarly depauperate in bumblebees and honeybees, and multiple categories of genes linked to social organization, including development and behavior, show high conservation. Key differences identified include a bias in bumblebee chemoreception towards gustation from olfaction, and striking differences in microRNAs, potentially responsible for gene regulation underlying social and other traits.

CONCLUSIONS:

These two bumblebee genomes provide a foundation for post-genomic research on these key pollinators and insect societies. Overall, gene repertoires suggest that the route to advanced eusociality in bees was mediated by many small changes in many genes and processes, and not by notable expansion or depauperation.

PMID:
25908251
PMCID:
PMC4414376
DOI:
10.1186/s13059-015-0623-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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