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Br J Nutr. 2015 Jun 28;113(12):1951-64. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515000963. Epub 2015 Apr 24.

Eating out is different from eating at home among individuals who occasionally eat out. A cross-sectional study among middle-aged adults from eleven European countries.

Author information

WHO Collaborating Center for Food and Nutrition Policies, Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, University of Athens,75 Mikras Asias Street,Goudi, Athens11527,Greece.
Hellenic Health Foundation,Kaisareias 13 and Alexandroupoleos,Athens11527,Greece.
Department of Food Safety and Food Quality,Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University,Coupure links 653,9000Gent,Belgium.
Technische Universität München, Center of Life and Food Sciences, Molecular Nutrition Unit,Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 2,85354Freising,Germany.
Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Rua Dr Roberto Frias,4200-465Porto,Portugal.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO),150, Cours Albert Thomas,69372Lyon Cedex 08,France.
Child Health and Nutrition Unit, Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine,Nationalestraat 155,2000Antwerp,Belgium.
Department of Community Medicine,Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø,N-9019Tromsø,Norway.
Department of Clinical Epidemiology,Predictive Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernani Monteiro,4200-319Porto,Portugal.
Department of Nutritional Sciences,University of Vienna,Althanstrasse 14 (Pharmaziezentrum),A-1090Vienna,Austria.
Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Centre (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ),Im Neuenheimer Feld 280,69120Heidelberg,Germany.
German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Department of Epidemiology,Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116,14558Nuthetal,Germany.
National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition (CRA-ex INRAN),Via Ardeatina 546,00178Rome,Italy.
Ragusa Cancer Registry,Azienda Ospedaliera 'Civile M. P. Arezzo' Via Dante N° 109,97100Ragusa,Italy.
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment,PO Box 1,3720BABilthoven,The Netherlands.
National Food and Nutrition Institute,61/63 Powsinska Street,02-903Warsaw,Poland.
Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research, Umeå University,901 85Umeå,Sweden.
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Richard Doll Building, Roosevelt Drive,OxfordOX3 7LF,UK.


Eating out has been linked to the current obesity epidemic, but the evaluation of the extent to which out of home (OH) dietary intakes are different from those at home (AH) is limited. Data collected among 8849 men and 14,277 women aged 35-64 years from the general population of eleven European countries through 24-h dietary recalls or food diaries were analysed to: (1) compare food consumption OH to those AH; (2) describe the characteristics of substantial OH eaters, defined as those who consumed 25 % or more of their total daily energy intake at OH locations. Logistic regression models were fit to identify personal characteristics associated with eating out. In both sexes, beverages, sugar, desserts, sweet and savoury bakery products were consumed more OH than AH. In some countries, men reported higher intakes of fish OH than AH. Overall, substantial OH eating was more common among men, the younger and the more educated participants, but was weakly associated with total energy intake. The substantial OH eaters reported similar dietary intakes OH and AH. Individuals who were not identified as substantial OH eaters reported consuming proportionally higher quantities of sweet and savoury bakery products, soft drinks, juices and other non-alcoholic beverages OH than AH. The OH intakes were different from the AH ones, only among individuals who reported a relatively small contribution of OH eating to their daily intakes and this may partly explain the inconsistent findings relating eating out to the current obesity epidemic.


Eating at home; Eating out; HECTOR

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