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Effects of the Environment, Chemicals and Drugs on Thyroid Function.


Sarne D15.


Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA):, Inc.; 2000-.
2016 Sep 27.

Author information

Research Professor, Cell and Molecular Biology, College of the Environment and Life Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI
Department of Paediatrics, National University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Ohio State University
Professor of Medicine, University of California - San Francisco, CA; Staff Physician and Chief of the Endocrine Clinic, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA
Professor of Endocrinology and Director of the Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, UK
Distinguished Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA; Associate Chief, Endocrinology and Diabetes Division and Director, Endocrine Clinic, West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA
Professor, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS
Co-Centre Head, Department of Endocrinology, Barts and the London School of Medicine, London, England
Director of Clinical Research, Prince Henry's Institute, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; Consultant Endocrinologist, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia
Professor of Pediatrics, Professor of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, and Director of the Adrenal Steroid Disorders Program, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY; Associate Dean for Clinical Research, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL
Professor of Medicine, Knight Cardiovascular Institute and the Division of Endocrinology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR
Executive Director, American Society for Reproductive Medicine in Birmingham, Alabama; Volunteer Clinical Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL
Director of the Endocrine/Bone Disease Program, John Wayne Cancer Institute at Saint John’s Health Center, Santa Monica, CA; Clinical Professor of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA
Professor of Medicine and Director, Strelitz Diabetes Center, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA
Medical Director, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics University of Chicago


The sensitive and tightly regulated feedback control system, thyroid gland autoregulation, and the large intrathyroidal and extrathyroidal storage pools of thyroid hormone serve to provide a constant supply of thyroid hormone to peripheral tissues in the face of perturbations imposed by the external environment, chemicals and drugs, and a variety of diseases processes. The thyroid is subject to a great number of exogenous and endogenous perturbations. The same agent may produce alterations in various aspects of thyroid hormone economy. For this reason, it is difficult to precisely classify all external and internal influences according to their mode of action. This chapter reviews effects on the thyroid produced by changes in the external environment, chemicals and drugs. The effects of non-thyroidal illness are reviewed in Chapter 5b. The effects of the more important factors and chemical agents and drugs are discussed individually.

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