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Anatomy and Ultrastructure of Bone – Histogenesis, Growth and Remodeling.


Baron R15.


Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA):, Inc.; 2000-.
2008 May 13.

Author information

Research Professor, Cell and Molecular Biology, College of the Environment and Life Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI
Department of Paediatrics, National University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Ohio State University
Professor of Medicine, University of California - San Francisco, CA; Staff Physician and Chief of the Endocrine Clinic, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA
Professor of Endocrinology and Director of the Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, UK
Distinguished Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA; Associate Chief, Endocrinology and Diabetes Division and Director, Endocrine Clinic, West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA
Professor, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS
Co-Centre Head, Department of Endocrinology, Barts and the London School of Medicine, London, England
Director of Clinical Research, Prince Henry's Institute, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; Consultant Endocrinologist, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia
Professor of Pediatrics, Professor of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, and Director of the Adrenal Steroid Disorders Program, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY; Associate Dean for Clinical Research, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL
Professor of Medicine, Knight Cardiovascular Institute and the Division of Endocrinology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR
Executive Director, American Society for Reproductive Medicine in Birmingham, Alabama; Volunteer Clinical Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL
Director of the Endocrine/Bone Disease Program, John Wayne Cancer Institute at Saint John’s Health Center, Santa Monica, CA; Clinical Professor of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA
Professor of Medicine and Director, Strelitz Diabetes Center, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA
Professor, Harvard School of Medicine, and Professor and Chair, Harvard School of Dental Medicine,


Bone, a specialized and mineralized connective tissue, makes up, with cartilage, the skeletal system, which serves three main functions: A mechanical function as support and site of muscle attachment for locomotion; a protective function for vital organs and bone marrow; and finally a metabolic function as a reserve of calcium and phosphate used for the maintenance of serum homeostasis, which is essential to life. In this chapter the anatomy and cell biology of bone is described as well as the mechanisms of bone remodeling, development and growth. Remodeling is the process by which bone is turned-over, allowing the maintenance of the shape, quality and amount of the skeleton. This process is characterized by the co-ordinated actions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, organized in bone multicellular units (BMUs) which follow an Activation-Resorption-Formation sequence of events. During embryonic development, bone formation occurs by two different means: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. Bone Growth is a term used to describe the changes in bone structure once the skeleton is formed and during the period of skeletal growth and maturation.

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