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Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA):, Inc.; 2000-.
2018 Jan 17.

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Research Professor, Cell and Molecular Biology, College of the Environment and Life Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI
Department of Paediatrics, National University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Ohio State University
Professor of Medicine, University of California - San Francisco, CA; Staff Physician and Chief of the Endocrine Clinic, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA
Professor of Endocrinology and Director of the Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, UK
Distinguished Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA; Associate Chief, Endocrinology and Diabetes Division and Director, Endocrine Clinic, West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA
Professor, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS
Co-Centre Head, Department of Endocrinology, Barts and the London School of Medicine, London, England
Director of Clinical Research, Prince Henry's Institute, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; Consultant Endocrinologist, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia
Professor of Pediatrics, Professor of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, and Director of the Adrenal Steroid Disorders Program, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY; Associate Dean for Clinical Research, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL
Professor of Medicine, Knight Cardiovascular Institute and the Division of Endocrinology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR
Executive Director, American Society for Reproductive Medicine in Birmingham, Alabama; Volunteer Clinical Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL
Director of the Endocrine/Bone Disease Program, John Wayne Cancer Institute at Saint John’s Health Center, Santa Monica, CA; Clinical Professor of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA
Professor of Medicine and Director, Strelitz Diabetes Center, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA
Clinical Instructor and Family Planning Fellow, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Penn Family Planning & Pregnancy Loss Center, 1000 Courtyard, Philadelphia, PA 19104
Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology


Contraception is important for the prevention of unintended pregnancies worldwide. Many contraceptives also have other medical benefits, such as decreasing endometrial and ovarian cancer risk or regulating the pain and bleeding of menstruation. It is essential for all physicians to have a basic knowledge of contraceptives, given that 99% of women in the United States will use contraception at some point in their reproductive lives. This chapter provides an overview of the various hormonal and non-hormonal methods. There is an emphasis placed on efficacy, pharmacology and the mechanism of action for each category of contraceptives. Progestin-only methods include the implant, intrauterine devices (IUDs), injectables and pills. Combined estrogen-progestin methods include pills, patch and vaginal ring. Non-hormonal methods include the copper IUD and barrier methods such as condoms or diaphragms. Non-contraceptive benefits and contraindications for each particular method are also described. Finally, some future developments are discussed. For complete coverage of this and all related areas of Endocrinology, please visit our FREE on-line web-textbook,

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