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J Clin Sleep Med. 2015 Sep 15;11(9):1047-56. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.5024.

Relationship between Duration of Sleep and Hypertension in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Institute of Pediatric Translational Medicine, Shanghai Children's Medical Center affiliated Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Ministry of Education Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children's Environmental Health, Shanghai, China.
2
Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.
3
Department of Bioinformatics and Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Pediatric Translational Medicine, Shanghai Children's Medical Center affiliated Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Epidemiologic studies have shown that chronic short sleep may be associated with the development of hypertension; however, the results are controversial. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether the duration of sleep is associated with hypertension.

METHODS:

Reference databases (PubMed, EmBase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biological Medicine database) were searched for studies related to sleep duration and hypertension. Sleep duration categories (≤ 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, ≥ 9 h) and prevalence or incidence of hypertension in each sleep category were extracted. A general analysis and subgroup analyses stratified by gender, age, study design, and different definitions of sleep duration were conducted to evaluate the relationship between sleep duration and hypertension.

RESULTS:

Thirteen articles out of a total of 1,628 articles involving 347,759 participants met the inclusion criteria. A U-shaped change in pooled odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension due to the change of sleep duration was observed. The unadjusted OR for hypertension of individuals who slept ≤ 5 h vs. 7 h was 1.61, 95% CI = 1.28-2.02; those who slept ≥ 9 h vs. 7 h was 1.29, 95% CI = 0.97-1.71. The pooled ORs were still significant after adjusted by age and gender. Women deprived of sleep (sleep time ≤ 5 h vs. 7 h, OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.39-2.03) had a higher risk of hypertension than men (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.93-1.83).

CONCLUSION:

Excessively longer and shorter periods of sleep may both be risk factors for high blood pressure; these associations are stronger in women than men.

KEYWORDS:

epidemiologic study; hypertension; meta-analysis; sleep deprivation; sleep duration

PMID:
25902823
PMCID:
PMC4543249
DOI:
10.5664/jcsm.5024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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