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Clin Exp Med. 2016 May;16(2):169-76. doi: 10.1007/s10238-015-0349-2. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

Analysis of KRAS and BRAF genes mutation in the central nervous system metastases of non-small cell lung cancer.

Author information

1
Department of Pneumonology, Oncology and Allergology, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-954, Lublin, Poland. marcin_nicos@interia.pl.
2
Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-091, Warsaw, Poland. marcin_nicos@interia.pl.
3
Department of Pneumonology, Oncology and Allergology, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-954, Lublin, Poland.
4
Pathological Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery and Pediatric Neurosurgery, Medical University of Lublin, 20-954, Lublin, Poland.
5
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Lublin, 20-954, Lublin, Poland.
6
Department of Pathomorphology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-954, Lublin, Poland.

Abstract

KRAS mutations are associated with tumor resistance to EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib) and to monoclonal antibody against EGFR (cetuximab). Targeted treatment of mutated RAS patients is still considered as a challenge. Inhibitors of c-Met (onartuzumab or tiwantinib) and MEK (selumetinib-a dual inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2) signaling pathways showed activity in patients with mutations in KRAS that can became an effective approach in carriers of such disorders. BRAF mutation is very rare in patients with NSCLC, and its presence is associated with sensitivity of tumor cells to BRAF inhibitors (vemurafenib, dabrafenib). In the present study, the frequency and type of KRAS and BRAF mutation were assessed in 145 FFPE tissue samples from CNS metastases of NSCLC. In 30 patients, material from the primary tumor was simultaneously available. Real-time PCR technique with allele-specific molecular probe (KRAS/BRAF Mutation Analysis Kit, Entrogen, USA) was used for molecular tests. KRAS mutations were detected in 21.4 % of CNS metastatic lesions and in 23.3 % of corresponding primary tumors. Five mutations were identified both in primary and in metastatic lesions, while one mutation only in primary tumor and one mutation only in the metastatic tumor. Most of mutations were observed in codon 12 of KRAS; however, an individual patient had diagnosed a rare G13D and Q61R substitutions. KRAS mutations were significantly more frequent in adenocarcinoma patients and smokers. Additional analysis indicated one patient with rare coexistence of KRAS and DDR2 mutations. BRAF mutation was not detected in the examined materials. KRAS frequency appears to be similar in primary and CNS.

KEYWORDS:

BRAF mutations; Central nervous system metastases; KRAS mutations; NSCLC

PMID:
25902737
PMCID:
PMC4844634
DOI:
10.1007/s10238-015-0349-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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