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Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2015 May;18(2):305-21. doi: 10.1016/j.cvex.2015.01.004.

Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

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VCA Wakefield Animal Hospital, 19 Main Street, Wakefield, MA 01880, USA; American Association of Fish Veterinarians, 4580 Crackersport Road, Allentown, PA 18104, USA; World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association, 132 Lichfield Road, Stafford, Staffordshire ST17 4LE, UK. Electronic address:


Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased.


Aquarium enrichment; Aquatic animal enrichment; Fish enrichment; Fish medicine; Koi enrichment; Octopus enrichment; Tropical fish enrichment

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