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Endocr Relat Cancer. 2015 Jun;22(3):431-41. doi: 10.1530/ERC-15-0002. Epub 2015 Apr 21.

Phase I study of the anti-IGF1R antibody cixutumumab with everolimus and octreotide in advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors.

Author information

1
Department of Gastrointestinal Medical OncologyThe University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Street, Unit 426, Houston, Texas 77030, USANational Cancer InstituteRockville, Maryland, USA.
2
Department of Gastrointestinal Medical OncologyThe University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Street, Unit 426, Houston, Texas 77030, USANational Cancer InstituteRockville, Maryland, USA jyao@mdanderson.org.

Abstract

Preclinical data suggest multiple roles for the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), including mediating resistance to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Everolimus, an oral mTOR inhibitor, and octreotide long-acting repeatable (LAR) are approved for subgroups of well-differentiated NET. The primary objective of the present study was to establish the safety and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of cixutumumab, a monoclonal antibody (MAB) against IGF1R, with everolimus and octreotide LAR. Patients with well-differentiated NET were treated with 10  mg everolimus p.o. daily, 20  mg octreotide LAR i.m. every 21 days, and escalating doses of cixutumumab. An expansion cohort was enrolled at RP2D. Correlative studies included the evaluation of mTOR pathway inhibition in paired tumor biopsies and the effects of this combination on metabolism via indirect calorimetry. Nineteen patients with progressive disease were enrolled, including nine to the expansion portion. Two patients had dose-limiting toxicities of grade 3 mucositis at 15  mg/kg cixutumumab. Long-term tolerance at RP2D was problematic, and the most common ≥grade 3 adverse event was fatigue. One patient with metastatic insulinoma had a confirmed partial response, whereas 17 had stable disease. The median progression-free survival was 43.6 weeks, and the median overall survival was 25.5 months. The RP2D of this combination per the predefined study protocol of 10  mg/kg cixutumumab i.v., 20  mg octreotide LAR i.m. every 21 days plus 10  mg everolimus p.o. daily is associated with non-dose-limiting toxicities that limit long-term tolerance. Although a signal of activity was noted in the present study, this will need to be reconciled with limited tolerance of the combination and data from larger studies of anti-IGF1R MABs in NET that have been disappointing.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01204476.

KEYWORDS:

IGF; carcinoids; intracellular signaling; neuroendocrine tumors

PMID:
25900182
PMCID:
PMC4566955
DOI:
10.1530/ERC-15-0002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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