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Epilepsy Behav. 2015 Aug;49:47-54. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.04.003. Epub 2015 Apr 29.

Ischemic-hypoxic mechanisms leading to hippocampal dysfunction as a consequence of status epilepticus.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Laboratory of Experimental Epileptology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
2
Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
3
Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Laboratory of Experimental Epileptology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; Department of Neurosciences, NOCSAE Hospital, AUSL Modena, Modena, Italy. Electronic address: gbiagini@unimore.it.

Abstract

Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the recognized primary precipitating events that can lead to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis. This type of epilepsy is characterized by poor response to drug treatment, often requiring surgical intervention to remove the mesial temporal regions involved in the seizure onset. However, even neurosurgery may not be completely successful. Thus, the prevention of hippocampal damage and epileptogenesis is currently evaluated as a possible alternative therapeutic approach to prevent the development of pharmacoresistant TLE. Lines of evidence suggest that ischemic-hypoxic lesions might occur in different brain regions, including the hippocampus, during SE. Especially in the hippocampal CA3 region, an ischemic-like lesion develops in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare and is mainly characterized by a loss of astrocytes and neuronal processes and increased immunostaining of pimonidazole which probes areas exposed to hypoxia. Interestingly, these mechanisms can contribute to neuronal cell loss and may be counteracted by drugs that can afford vascular protection, as in the case of ligands of the ghrelin receptor. Notably, some of the ghrelin receptor ligands possess a double edge effect, since they are anticonvulsant and vascular-protective, thus, potentially representing new tools to counteract the consequences of SE. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus".

KEYWORDS:

Ghrelin; Hippocampus; Laminin; Pilocarpine; Pimonidazole; Status epilepticus; Temporal lobe epilepsy

PMID:
25934585
DOI:
10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.04.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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