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Mol Pain. 2015 Apr 21;11:21. doi: 10.1186/s12990-015-0020-7.

Chronic dry eye symptoms after LASIK: parallels and lessons to be learned from other persistent post-operative pain disorders.

Author information

  • 1Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, 900 NW 17th Street, Miami, FL, 33136, USA. alevitt@med.miami.edu.
  • 2Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, 900 NW 17th Street, Miami, FL, 33136, USA. agalor@med.miami.edu.
  • 3Miami Veterans Administration Medical Center, 1201 NW 16th St, Miami, FL, 33125, USA. agalor@med.miami.edu.
  • 4Departments of Ophthalmology, Pathology and Pharmacology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Louisiana State University Eye Center, New Orleans, LA, USA. jweiss@lsuhsc.edu.
  • 5Miami Veterans Administration Medical Center, 1201 NW 16th St, Miami, FL, 33125, USA. EFelix@med.miami.edu.
  • 6Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. EFelix@med.miami.edu.
  • 7John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. EMartin1@med.miami.edu.
  • 8John T Macdonald Foundation Department of Human Genetics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. EMartin1@med.miami.edu.
  • 9Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. dpatin@med.miami.edu.
  • 10Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. KSarantopoulos@med.miami.edu.
  • 11Miami Veterans Administration Medical Center, 1201 NW 16th St, Miami, FL, 33125, USA. RLevitt@med.miami.edu.
  • 12John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. RLevitt@med.miami.edu.
  • 13John T Macdonald Foundation Department of Human Genetics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. RLevitt@med.miami.edu.
  • 14Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. RLevitt@med.miami.edu.

Abstract

Laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a commonly performed surgical procedure used to correct refractive error. LASIK surgery involves cutting a corneal flap and ablating the stroma underneath, with known damage to corneal nerves. Despite this, the epidemiology of persistent pain and other long-term outcomes after LASIK surgery are not well understood. Available data suggest that approximately 20-55% of patients report persistent eye symptoms (generally regarded as at least 6 months post-operation) after LASIK surgery. While it was initially believed that these symptoms were caused by ocular surface dryness, and referred to as "dry eye," it is now increasingly understood that corneal nerve damage produced by LASIK surgery resembles the pathologic neuroplasticity associated with other forms of persistent post-operative pain. In susceptible patients, these neuropathological changes, including peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, and altered descending modulation, may underlie certain persistent dry eye symptoms after LASIK surgery. This review will focus on the known epidemiology of symptoms after LASIK and discuss mechanisms of persistent post-op pain due to nerve injury that may be relevant to these patients. Potential preventative and treatment options based on approaches used for other forms of persistent post-op pain and their application to LASIK patients are also discussed. Finally, the concept of genetic susceptibility to post-LASIK ocular surface pain is presented.

PMID:
25896684
PMCID:
PMC4411662
DOI:
10.1186/s12990-015-0020-7
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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