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Transplant Proc. 2015 Apr;47(3):794-5. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2014.11.056.

Thymoglobulin for steroid-resistant immune-mediated graft dysfunction during simeprevir-based antiviral treatment for post-transplantation hepatitis C: case report.

Author information

1
Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address: ktake@surg2.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp.
2
Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Immune-mediated graft dysfunction (IGD), a recently established disease entity with unfavourable outcome, is an antigraft immune reaction during interferon-based antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after liver transplantation (LT). We report a case having steroid-resistant acute cellular rejection (ACR) type IGD, which was successfully treated using thymoglobulin.

CASE REPORT:

A 56-year-old woman with recurrent HCV after LT was commenced on antiviral treatment including simeprevir, pegylated-interferon (IFN) 2a, and ribavirin. A negative serum HCV-RNA was confirmed after 4 weeks. After 12 weeks of therapy, severe liver dysfunction developed, despite a constantly negative HCV-RNA. Liver biopsy revealed portal and periportal inflammatory infiltrates including numerous eosinophils, lymphocytes, and bile duct damages, indicating ACR. IFN therapy was ceased, and she was treated with steroid pulse treatment, followed by high-level immunosuppression maintenance. However, ACR was irremediable. Thereafter she was treated with thymoglobulin (75 mg/d for 5 days). Her serum alanine aminotransaminase and total bilirubin levels decreased immediately, and her liver biopsy specimen showed no activity. During these periods of the treatment, the HCV-RNA became positive and the liver enzyme elevated, but other liver function tests still remained within normal range.

CONCLUSION:

Thymoglobulin could be the best choice in steroid-resistant IGD during antiviral treatment for post-transplantation recurrent hepatitis C.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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