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BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Feb 15;15:62. doi: 10.1186/s12879-015-0812-4.

Predictors and outcomes of mycobacteremia among HIV-infected smear- negative presumptive tuberculosis patients in Uganda.

Author information

1
Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. lydikiyingi@yahoo.com.
2
Makerere University College of Heath Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. lydikiyingi@yahoo.com.
3
Makerere University College of Heath Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. willyssengooba@gmail.com.
4
Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. willyssengooba@gmail.com.
5
Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. dnakanjako@gmail.com.
6
Makerere University College of Heath Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. dnakanjako@gmail.com.
7
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. darmstr5@jhmi.edu.
8
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. molly.holshouser@gmail.com.
9
Makerere University College of Heath Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. brucekirenga@yahoo.co.uk.
10
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. mshah28@jhmi.edu.
11
Makerere University College of Heath Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. hmk@chs.mak.ac.ug.
12
Makerere University College of Heath Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. m.joloba@gmail.com.
13
Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. Jerrold.Ellner@bmc.org.
14
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. dsusan1@jhmi.edu.
15
Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. ymanabe@jhmi.edu.
16
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. ymanabe@jhmi.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis lacks sensitivity in HIV-infected symptomatic patients and increases the likelihood that mycobacterial infections particularly disseminated TB will be missed; delays in diagnosis can be fatal. Given the duration for MTB growth in blood culture, clinical predictors of MTB bacteremia may improve early diagnosis of mycobacteremia. We describe the predictors and mortality outcome of mycobacteremia among HIV-infected sputum smear-negative presumptive TB patients in a high prevalence HIV/TB setting.

METHODS:

Between January and November 2011, all consenting HIV-infected adults suspected to have TB (presumptive TB) were consecutively enrolled. Diagnostic assessment included sputum smear microscopy, urine Determine TB lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen test, mycobacterial sputum and blood cultures, chest X-ray, and CD4 cell counts in addition to clinical and socio-demographic data. Patients were followed for 12 months post-enrolment.

RESULTS:

Of 394 sputum smear-negative participants [female, 63.7%; median age (IQR) 32 (28-39) years], 41/394 (10.4%) had positive mycobacterial blood cultures (mycobacteremia); all isolates were M. tuberculosis (MTB). The median CD4 cell count was significantly lower among patients with mycobacteremia when compared with those without (CD4 31 versus 122 cells/μL, p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, male gender [OR 3.4, 95%CI (1.4-7.6), p = 0.005], CD4 count <100 cells/μL [OR 3.1, 95% CI (1.1-8.6), p = 0.030] and a positive lateral flow urine TB LAM antigen test [OR 15.3, 95%CI (5.7-41.1), p < 0.001] were significantly associated with mycobacteremia. At 12 months of follow-up, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in patients that were MTB blood culture positive (35.3%) compared with those that were MTB blood culture negative (23.3%) (p = 0.065).

CONCLUSIONS:

Mycobacteremia occurred in 10% of smear-negative patients and was associated with higher mortality compared with smear-negative patients without mycobacteremia. Advanced HIV disease (CD4 < 100 cells/mm(3)), male gender and positive lateral flow urine TB LAM test predicted mycobacteremia in HIV-infected smear-negative presumptive TB patients in this high prevalence TB/HIV setting.

PMID:
25888317
PMCID:
PMC4332438
DOI:
10.1186/s12879-015-0812-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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