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BMC Cancer. 2015 Apr 7;15:224. doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1239-4.

Chemoresistance is associated with increased cytoprotective autophagy and diminished apoptosis in bladder cancer cells treated with the BH3 mimetic (-)-Gossypol (AT-101).

Author information

1
Department of Urology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. jens.mani@kgu.de.
2
Department of Urology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. stefan.vallo@kgu.de.
3
Experimental Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Center, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. stefanie.rakel@kgu.de.
4
Experimental Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Center, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. antonietti@med.uni-frankfurt.de.
5
Experimental Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Center, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. f.gessler@med.uni-frankfurt.de.
6
Department of Urology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. blaheta@em.uni-frankfurt.de.
7
Department of Urology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. georg.bartsch@kgu.de.
8
Institute for Medical Virology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. m.michaelis@kent.ac.uk.
9
School of Biosciences, The University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NZ, UK. m.michaelis@kent.ac.uk.
10
Institute for Medical Virology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. cinatl@em.uni-frankfurt.de.
11
Department of Urology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. axel.haferkamp@kgu.de.
12
Experimental Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Center, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. koegel@em.uni-frankfurt.de.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Acquired resistance to standard chemotherapy causes treatment failure in patients with metastatic bladder cancer. Overexpression of pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins has been associated with a poor chemotherapeutic response, suggesting that Bcl-2-targeted therapy may be a feasible strategy in patients with these tumors. The small-molecule pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor (-)-gossypol (AT-101) is known to induce apoptotic cell death, but can also induce autophagy through release of the pro-autophagic BH3 only protein Beclin-1 from Bcl-2. The potential therapeutic effects of (-)-gossypol in chemoresistant bladder cancer and the role of autophagy in this context are hitherto unknown.

METHODS:

Cisplatin (5637(r)CDDP(1000), RT4(r)CDDP(1000)) and gemcitabine (5637(r)GEMCI(20), RT4(r)GEMCI(20)) chemoresistant sub-lines of the chemo-sensitive bladder cancer cell lines 5637 and RT4 were established for the investigation of acquired resistance mechanisms. Cell lines carrying a stable lentiviral knockdown of the core autophagy regulator ATG5 were created from chemosensitive 5637 and chemoresistant 5637(r)GEMCI(20) and 5637(r)CDDP(1000) cell lines. Cell death and autophagy were quantified by FACS analysis of propidium iodide, Annexin and Lysotracker staining, as well as LC3 translocation.

RESULTS:

Here we demonstrate that (-)-gossypol induces an apoptotic type of cell death in 5637 and RT4 cells which is partially inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD. Cisplatin- and gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer cells exhibit enhanced basal and drug-induced autophagosome formation and lysosomal activity which is accompanied by an attenuated apoptotic cell death after treatment with both (-)-gossypol and ABT-737, a Bcl-2 inhibitor which spares Mcl-1, in comparison to parental cells. Knockdown of ATG5 and inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA had no discernible effect on apoptotic cell death induced by (-)-gossypol and ABT-737 in parental 5637 cells, but evoked a significant increase in early apoptosis and overall cell death in BH3 mimetic-treated 5637(r)GEMCI(20) and 5637(r)CDDP(1000) cells.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings show for the first time that (-)-gossypol concomitantly triggers apoptosis and a cytoprotective type of autophagy in bladder cancer and support the notion that enhanced autophagy may underlie the chemoresistant phenotype of these tumors. Simultaneous targeting of Bcl-2 proteins and the autophagy pathway may be an efficient new strategy to overcome their "autophagy addiction" and acquired resistance to current therapy.

PMID:
25885284
PMCID:
PMC4409725
DOI:
10.1186/s12885-015-1239-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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