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Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:208947. doi: 10.1155/2015/208947. Epub 2015 Mar 26.

Can exposure to environmental chemicals increase the risk of diabetes type 1 development?

Author information

1
Department of Food, Water and Cosmetics, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway.
2
Department of Chronic Diseases, Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway.

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

PMID:
25883945
PMCID:
PMC4391693
DOI:
10.1155/2015/208947
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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