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Hematology. 2015 Dec;20(10):598-606. doi: 10.1179/1607845415Y.0000000013. Epub 2015 Apr 16.

Relation between glutathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) polymorphisms and clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease in Egyptian patients.



Clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) result from sickling of Hb S due to oxidation, which is augmented by accumulation of oxygen-free radicals. Deficiencies in normal antioxidant protective mechanism might lead to clinical manifestations of SCD like vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) and acute chest syndrome (ACS). The glutathione system plays an important role in the removal of endogenous products of peroxidation of lipids, thus protecting cells and tissue against damage from oxidative stress. Impairment of the glutathione system due to genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes is expected to increase the severity of SCD manifestations. This report describes a case control study aimed at studying the ethnic-dependent variation in the frequency of GST gene polymorphisms among participants selected from the Egyptian population and to find out the association between GST gene polymorphisms and the severity of SCD manifestations.


We measured the frequency distribution of the three GSTs gene polymorphisms in 100 Egyptian adult SCD patients and 80 corresponding controls. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). GSTP1 genotyping was conducted with a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.


The GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with ACS and VOC (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). The GSTT1 null genotype was associated with significantly increased requirement of blood transfusion (P = 0.01). Absence of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes was significantly associated with pulmonary hypertension (P = 0.04). The non-wild-type GSTP1 polymorphism was not associated with clinical manifestations of SCD.


Some GST gene polymorphisms were significantly associated with the worsening of the clinical manifestations of SCD.


Acute chest syndrome; Glutathione S-transferase genes polymorphisms; Sickle cell disease; Vaso-occlusive crisis

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