Format

Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2015 Apr 15;10(4):e0122140. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122140. eCollection 2015.

The association of socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors and dietary patterns with total urinary phthalates in Australian men.

Author information

1
Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
2
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the associations between socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, dietary patterns and urinary total phthalate concentration in a cohort of South Australian men.

METHOD:

We randomly selected 1527 males aged 39 to 84 from wave two of the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) study. Total phthalate concentration was examined in fasting morning urine samples. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were constructed using factor analysis.

RESULTS:

Total phthalates were detected in 99.6% of the urine samples. The overall geometric mean (95% CI) of total phthalate concentration was 112.4 (107.5-117.5) ng/mL. The least square geometric means (LSGMs) of total phthalate concentration were significantly higher among people who were obese (127.8 ng/mL), consuming less than two serves fruit per day (125.7 ng/mL) and drinking more than one can (375mL) of carbonated soft drink per day (131.9 ng/mL). Two dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern and a western dietary pattern. Both the western dietary pattern (p = 0.002) and multiple lifestyle risk factors including smoking, obesity, insufficient physical activity and the highest quartile of the western dietary pattern (p<0.001), were positively associated with total phthalate levels. There was no significant relationship between total phthalate concentration and socio-demographic status.

CONCLUSION:

Phthalate exposure is ubiquitous and positively associated with lifestyle risk factors in urban dwelling Australian men.

PMID:
25875472
PMCID:
PMC4398403
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0122140
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center