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Kidney Int. 2015 Aug;88(2):396-403. doi: 10.1038/ki.2015.101. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

Combined use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with diuretics and/or renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in the community increases the risk of acute kidney injury.

Author information

1
1] Population Health Sciences Division, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK [2] NHS Tayside Medicines Governance Unit, Dundee, UK.
2
Population Health Sciences Division, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.

Abstract

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) when used in triple combination with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and diuretics, but previous research reported that NSAIDs in dual combinations with either renin-angiotensin system inhibitors or diuretics alone were not. However, earlier studies relied on hospital coding to define AKI, which may underestimate true risk. This nested case-control study characterized the risk of community-acquired AKI associated with NSAID use among 78,379 users of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and/or diuretics, where AKI was defined as a 50% or greater increase in creatinine from baseline. The AKI incidence was 68/10,000 person-years. The relative increase in AKI risk was similar for NSAID use in both triple (adjusted rate ratio 1.64 (95% CI 1.25-2.14)) and dual combinations with either renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (1.60 (1.18-2.17)) or diuretics (1.64 (1.17-2.29)). However, the absolute increase in AKI risk was higher for NSAIDs used in triple versus dual combinations with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors or diuretics alone (numbers needed to harm for 1 year treatment with NSAID of 158 vs. over 300). AKI risk was highest among users of loop diuretic/aldosterone antagonist combinations, in those over 75 years of age, and in those with renal impairment. Thus, the nephrotoxic potential of both dual and triple combinations of NSAIDs with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and/or diuretics yields a higher incidence of AKI than previously thought.

PMID:
25874600
DOI:
10.1038/ki.2015.101
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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