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Molecules. 2015 Apr 13;20(4):6544-72. doi: 10.3390/molecules20046544.

Longevity extension by phytochemicals.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street, West, SP Building, Room 501-13, Montreal, QC H4B 1R6, Canada. anna_leonova@yahoo.com.
2
Department of Biology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street, West, SP Building, Room 501-13, Montreal, QC H4B 1R6, Canada. anthony.arlia@outlook.com.
3
Department of Biology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street, West, SP Building, Room 501-13, Montreal, QC H4B 1R6, Canada. amandapiano91@hotmail.com.
4
Department of Biology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street, West, SP Building, Room 501-13, Montreal, QC H4B 1R6, Canada. klubnika_veronika@hotmail.com.
5
Department of Biology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street, West, SP Building, Room 501-13, Montreal, QC H4B 1R6, Canada. lutchman.david@hotmail.com.
6
Department of Biology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street, West, SP Building, Room 501-13, Montreal, QC H4B 1R6, Canada. writetoyounes@gmail.com.
7
Department of Biology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street, West, SP Building, Room 501-13, Montreal, QC H4B 1R6, Canada. vladimir.titorenko@concordia.ca.

Abstract

Phytochemicals are structurally diverse secondary metabolites synthesized by plants and also by non-pathogenic endophytic microorganisms living within plants. Phytochemicals help plants to survive environmental stresses, protect plants from microbial infections and environmental pollutants, provide them with a defense from herbivorous organisms and attract natural predators of such organisms, as well as lure pollinators and other symbiotes of these plants. In addition, many phytochemicals can extend longevity in heterotrophic organisms across phyla via evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. In this review, we discuss such mechanisms. We outline how structurally diverse phytochemicals modulate a complex network of signaling pathways that orchestrate a distinct set of longevity-defining cellular processes. This review also reflects on how the release of phytochemicals by plants into a natural ecosystem may create selective forces that drive the evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms in heterotrophic organisms inhabiting this ecosystem. We outline the most important unanswered questions and directions for future research in this vibrant and rapidly evolving field.

PMID:
25871373
PMCID:
PMC6272139
DOI:
10.3390/molecules20046544
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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