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J Geriatr Cardiol. 2015 Mar;12(2):135-42. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2015.02.003.

Combination therapy reduces the incidence of no-reflow after primary per-cutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction.

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1
Department of Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Fuxing Road 28, Haidian District, Beijing 100853, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

No-reflow is associated with an adverse outcome and higher mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is considered a dynamic process characterized by multiple pathogenetic components. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combination therapy for the prevention of no-reflow in patient with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing primary PCI.

METHODS:

A total of 621 patients with STEMI who underwent emergency primary PCI were enrolled in this study. Patients with high risk of no-reflow (no-flow score ≥ 10, by using a no-flow risk prediction model, n = 216) were randomly divided into a controlled group (n = 108) and a combination therapy group (n = 108). Patients in the controlled group received conventional treatment, while patients in combination therapy group received high-dose (80 mg) atorvastatin pre-treatment, intracoronary administration of adenosine (140 µg/min per kilogram) during PCI procedure, platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist (tirofiban, 10µg/kg bolus followed by 0.15 µg/kg per minute) and thrombus aspiration. Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed to assess the myocardial perfusion 72 h after PCI. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were followed up for six months.

RESULTS:

Incidence of no-reflow in combination therapy group was 2.8%, which was similar to that in low risk group 2.7% and was significantly lower than that in control group (35.2%, P < 0.01). The myocardial perfusion (A × β) values were higher in combination therapy group than that in control group 72 h after PCI. After 6 months, there were six (6.3%) MACE events (one death, two non-fatal MIs and three revascularizations) in combination therapy group and 12 (13.2%) (four deaths, three non-fatal MIs and five revascularizations, P < 0.05) in control group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Combination of thrombus aspiration, high-dose statin pre-treatment, intracoronary administration of adenosine during PCI procedure and platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist reduce the incidence of no-reflow after primary PCI in patients with acute myocardial infarction who are at high risk of no-reflow.

KEYWORDS:

Acute myocardial infarction; Myocardial contrast echocardiography; No-reflow phenomenon; Percutaneous coronary intervention; ST-elevation myocardial infarction

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