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Nat Prod Res. 2016;30(5):613-5. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1030738. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Modulation of antioxidant systems by subchronic exposure to the aqueous extract of leaves from Achillea millefolium L. in rats.

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a Sector of Biological Sciences, Department of Pharmacology , Universidade Federal do ParanĂ¡ , Curitiba , PR , Brazil.


We determined the effects of subchronic exposure to aqueous extract of leaves from Achillea millefolium (AE) on enzyme- and non-enzyme-dependent antioxidant systems in rats. Seven days treatment with AE (1 g/kg/twice a day, p.o.) altered the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in several organs of the animals. Amount of GSH in uterus was increased (73%) while in kidneys it was decreased (23%). Besides, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity was increased in forestomach (26%) and in liver (64%), while glutathione S-transferase activity was decreased in the forestomach (32%) and increased in the liver (41%), kidney (35%) and uterus (37%). In preliminary experiments targeting the interaction of AE with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, p.o.), we observed augmentation of acetaminophen-induced increase of the plasmatic alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase and lactate dehydrogenase. Overall, the results indicate a potential toxic interaction of AE compounds with xenobiotics that use the glutathione pathway.


Achillea millefolium; acetaminophen toxicity; antioxidant enzymes; glutathione; toxicity

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