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Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Aug 15;21(16):3727-39. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2824. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Ablative Tumor Radiation Can Change the Tumor Immune Cell Microenvironment to Induce Durable Complete Remissions.

Author information

1
Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. sstrober@stanford.edu afilaten@standord.edu.
2
Division of Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
3
Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
4
Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
5
Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The goals of the study were to elucidate the immune mechanisms that contribute to desirable complete remissions of murine colon tumors treated with single radiation dose of 30 Gy. This dose is at the upper end of the ablative range used clinically to treat advanced or metastatic colorectal, liver, and non-small cell lung tumors.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:

Changes in the tumor immune microenvironment of single tumor nodules exposed to radiation were studied using 21-day (>1 cm in diameter) CT26 and MC38 colon tumors. These are well-characterized weakly immunogenic tumors.

RESULTS:

We found that the high-dose radiation transformed the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment resulting in an intense CD8(+) T-cell tumor infiltrate, and a loss of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). The change was dependent on antigen cross-presenting CD8(+) dendritic cells, secretion of IFNγ, and CD4(+)T cells expressing CD40L. Antitumor CD8(+) T cells entered tumors shortly after radiotherapy, reversed MDSC infiltration, and mediated durable remissions in an IFNγ-dependent manner. Interestingly, extended fractionated radiation regimen did not result in robust CD8(+) T-cell infiltration.

CONCLUSIONS:

For immunologically sensitive tumors, these results indicate that remissions induced by a short course of high-dose radiotherapy depend on the development of antitumor immunity that is reflected by the nature and kinetics of changes induced in the tumor cell microenvironment. These results suggest that systematic examination of the tumor immune microenvironment may help in optimizing the radiation regimen used to treat tumors by adding a robust immune response.

PMID:
25869387
PMCID:
PMC4537844
DOI:
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2824
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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