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J Avian Med Surg. 2015 Mar;29(1):40-5. doi: 10.1647/2014-014.

Diagnosis of Retrobulbar Round Cell Neoplasia in a Macaroni Penguin ( Eudyptes chrysolophus ) Through Use of Computed Tomography.


A 25-year-old female macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) was diagnosed with exophthalmos secondary to retrobulbar neoplasia through use of computed tomography (CT). Histopathologic examination of the mass supported a diagnosis of malignant round cell neoplasia. Immunohistochemical (IHC) labeling was applied to determine cell origin; the neoplastic cells did not label with T-cell marker CD3 or B-cell marker BLA.36 and could not be further characterized. The scleral ossicles precluded evaluation of the retrobulbar space by ultrasonography; therefore, CT scanning is recommended for examination of intraorbital structures in penguin and other avian species.


Eudyptes chrysolophus; avian; computed tomography; exophthalmos; immunohistochemistry; macaroni penguin; retrobulbar mass; scleral ossicles

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