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Anticancer Res. 2015 Apr;35(4):2037-47.

The role of microRNAs in thyroid carcinomas.

Author information

1
IOM Ricerca srl, Viagrande, Italy stefano.forte@grupposamed.com.
2
Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di SanitĂ , Rome, Italy Department of Experimental Oncology, Mediterranean Institute of Oncology, Viagrande, Italy.
3
Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, University of Rome "Sapienza", Rome, Italy.
4
IOM Ricerca srl, Viagrande, Italy Department of Experimental Oncology, Mediterranean Institute of Oncology, Viagrande, Italy.

Abstract

Thyroid cancers (TCs) are the most common malignancies of endocrine organs. They originate from cells of different origin within the thyroid gland, which is located at the base of the neck. Several forms of TCs have been classified and great variability is observed in molecular, cellular and clinical features. The most common forms have favorable prognosis but a number of very aggressive TCs, which are characterized by a less differentiated cellular phenotype, have no effective treatment at the moment. While TC causes are not completely understood, many genetic factors involved in their onset have been discovered. In particular, activating mutations of BRAF, RET or RAS genes are known to be specifically associated with TC initiation, progression and outcome. The involvement of microRNAs in thyroid neoplasms has recently changed the paradigm for biomarker discovery in TC, suggesting that these small non-coding RNAs could be used to develop, refine or strengthen strategies for diagnosis and management of TCs. In this review, the importance of microRNA profiling in TC is explored suggesting that these molecules can be included in procedures that can perform better than any known clinical index in the identification of adverse outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

Thyroid carcinomas; diagnostic biomarkers; microRNA; prognosis prediction; review; risk assessment

PMID:
25862858
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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