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Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Apr 8;16(4):7851-60. doi: 10.3390/ijms16047851.

The photodynamic antibacterial effects of silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4.

Author information

1
Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. matthew.dimaano@case.edu.
2
Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. rozario.4@buckeyemail.osu.edu.
3
Research Service, Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. michellenerandzic@gmail.com.
4
Research Service, Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. curtis.donskey@va.gov.
5
Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. minh.lam@case.edu.
6
Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. elma.baron@case.edu.
7
Department of Dermatology, Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. elma.baron@case.edu.

Abstract

The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a global health issue. Typically, MRSA strains are found associated with institutions like hospitals but recent data suggest that they are becoming more prevalent in community-acquired infections. It is thought that the incidence and prevalence of bacterial infections will continue to increase as (a) more frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive medications; (b) increased number of invasive medical procedures; and (c) higher incidence of neutropenia and HIV infections. Therefore, more optimal treatments, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), are warranted. PDT requires the interaction of light, a photosensitizing agent, and molecular oxygen to induce cytotoxic effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and characterized the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by photodynamic therapy sensitized by silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 on (a) methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (ATCC 25923); (b) community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) (ATCC 43300); and (c) hospital acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) (PFGE type 300). Our data include confocal image analysis, which confirmed that Pc 4 is taken up by all S. aureus strains, and viable cell recovery assay, which showed that concentrations as low as 1.0 μM Pc 4 incubated for 3 h at 37 °C followed by light at 2.0 J/cm2 can reduce cell survival by 2-5 logs. These results are encouraging, but before PDT can be utilized as an alternative treatment for eradicating resistant strains, we must first characterize the mechanism of cell death that Pc 4-based PDT employs in eliminating these pathogens.

PMID:
25856680
PMCID:
PMC4425053
DOI:
10.3390/ijms16047851
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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