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Neuron. 2015 Apr 8;86(1):92-105. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.01.028.

Tools for probing local circuits: high-density silicon probes combined with optogenetics.

Author information

1
The Neuroscience Institute, New York University, School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Center for Neural Science, New York University, School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address: gyorgy.buzsaki@nyumc.org.
2
The Neuroscience Institute, New York University, School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
3
The Neuroscience Institute, New York University, School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; MTA-SZTE "Lendület" Oscillatory Neural Networks Research Group, University of Szeged, Department of Physiology, Szeged H-6720, Hungary.
4
NeuroNexus Technologies, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI 48108, USA.
5
Center for Wireless Integrated Microsensing and Systems, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122, USA.

Abstract

To understand how function arises from the interactions between neurons, it is necessary to use methods that allow the monitoring of brain activity at the single-neuron, single-spike level and the targeted manipulation of the diverse neuron types selectively in a closed-loop manner. Large-scale recordings of neuronal spiking combined with optogenetic perturbation of identified individual neurons has emerged as a suitable method for such tasks in behaving animals. To fully exploit the potential power of these methods, multiple steps of technical innovation are needed. We highlight the current state of the art in electrophysiological recording methods, combined with optogenetics, and discuss directions for progress. In addition, we point to areas where rapid development is in progress and discuss topics where near-term improvements are possible and needed.

PMID:
25856489
PMCID:
PMC4392339
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuron.2015.01.028
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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