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J Virol. 2015 Jun;89(12):6481-93. doi: 10.1128/JVI.03156-14. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Interaction between TIM-1 and NPC1 Is Important for Cellular Entry of Ebola Virus.

Author information

1
Division of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo, Japan.
2
Division of Infection and Immunity, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo, Japan.
3
Department of Cell Physiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.
4
Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA.
5
Division of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo, Japan Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan atakada@czc.hokudai.ac.jp.

Abstract

Multiple host molecules are known to be involved in the cellular entry of filoviruses, including Ebola virus (EBOV); T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been identified as attachment and fusion receptors, respectively. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the entry process have not been fully understood. We found that TIM-1 and NPC1 colocalized and interacted in the intracellular vesicles where EBOV glycoprotein (GP)-mediated membrane fusion occurred. Interestingly, a TIM-1-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb), M224/1, prevented GP-mediated membrane fusion and also interfered with the binding of TIM-1 to NPC1, suggesting that the interaction between TIM-1 and NPC1 is important for filovirus membrane fusion. Moreover, MAb M224/1 efficiently inhibited the cellular entry of viruses from all known filovirus species. These data suggest a novel mechanism underlying filovirus membrane fusion and provide a potential cellular target for antiviral compounds that can be universally used against filovirus infections.

IMPORTANCE:

Filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses, cause rapidly fatal diseases in humans and nonhuman primates. There are currently no approved vaccines or therapeutics for filovirus diseases. In general, the cellular entry step of viruses is one of the key mechanisms to develop antiviral strategies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the entry process of filoviruses have not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that TIM-1 and NPC1, which serve as attachment and fusion receptors for filovirus entry, interact in the intracellular vesicles where Ebola virus GP-mediated membrane fusion occurs and that this interaction is important for filovirus infection. We found that filovirus infection and GP-mediated membrane fusion in cultured cells were remarkably suppressed by treatment with a TIM-1-specific monoclonal antibody that interfered with the interaction between TIM-1 and NPC1. Our data provide new insights for the development of antiviral compounds that can be universally used against filovirus infections.

PMID:
25855742
PMCID:
PMC4474285
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.03156-14
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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