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BMJ Open. 2015 Apr 8;5(4):e007554. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007554.

Secondhand smoke in outdoor settings: smokers' consumption, non-smokers' perceptions, and attitudes towards smoke-free legislation in Spain.

Author information

1
Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Control and Prevention Programme, Institut Català d'Oncologia-ICO, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Cancer Control and Prevention Group, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universitat de Barcelona, L'Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
2
Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Control and Prevention Programme, Institut Català d'Oncologia-ICO, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Cancer Control and Prevention Group, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universitat de Barcelona, L'Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals, Insitut Català d'Oncologia, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
3
Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Control and Prevention Programme, Institut Català d'Oncologia-ICO, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Cancer Control and Prevention Group, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Biostatistic Unit, Department of Basic Science, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Satn Cugat del Valles, Spain.
4
Evaluation and Interventions Methods Service, Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Biomedical Research Centre Network for Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica-IBB Sant Pau, Sant Antoni Maria Claret, Barcelona, Spain.
5
Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Control and Prevention Programme, Institut Català d'Oncologia-ICO, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Cancer Control and Prevention Group, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals, Insitut Català d'Oncologia, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Department of Nursing, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Sant Cugat del Valles, Spain.
6
Cancer Control and Prevention Group, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Direcció General de Planificació i Recerca en Salut, Generalitat de Catalunya, Travessera de les Corts, Barcelona, Spain Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe where smokers smoke outdoors, where non-smokers are exposed outdoors to secondhand smoke (SHS), and attitudes towards smoke-free outdoor areas after the implementation of national smoke-free legislation.

DESIGN:

This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 (n=1307 participants).

SETTING:

Barcelona, Spain.

PARTICIPANTS:

Representative, random sample of the adult (≥16 years) population.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES:

Proportion of smoking and prevalence of exposure to SHS in the various settings according to type of enclosure. Percentages of support for outdoor smoke-free policies according to smoking status.

RESULTS:

Smokers reported smoking outdoors most in bars and restaurants (54.8%), followed by outdoor places at work (46.8%). According to non-smokers, outdoor SHS exposure was highest at home (42.5%) and in bars and restaurants (33.5%). Among non-smoking adult students, 90% claimed exposure to SHS on university campuses. There was great support for banning smoking in the majority of outdoor areas, which was stronger among non-smokers than smokers. Over 70% of participants supported smoke-free playgrounds, school and high school courtyards, and the grounds of healthcare centres.

CONCLUSIONS:

Extending smoking bans to selected outdoor settings should be considered in further tobacco control interventions to protect non-smokers from SHS exposure and to establish a positive model for youth. The majority of public support for some outdoor smoke-free areas suggests that it is feasible to extend smoking bans to additional outdoor settings.

KEYWORDS:

EPIDEMIOLOGY; PUBLIC HEALTH

PMID:
25854974
PMCID:
PMC4390691
DOI:
10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007554
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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