Send to

Choose Destination
Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015 May;13(5):298-309. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro3448. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Recent functional insights into the role of (p)ppGpp in bacterial physiology.

Author information

1] Department of Molecular Biology and Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå University, Building 6K and 6L, University Hospital Area, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden. [2] Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Nooruse 1, Tartu 50411, Estonia.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for RNA Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.
Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Nooruse 1, Tartu 50411, Estonia.
Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaløes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.


The alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp) are involved in regulating growth and several different stress responses in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of (p)ppGpp metabolism and (p)ppGpp-mediated regulation. In this Review, we summarize these recent insights, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms governing the activity of the RelA/SpoT homologue (RSH) proteins, which are key players that regulate the cellular levels of (p)ppGpp. We also discuss the structural basis of transcriptional regulation by (p)ppGpp and the role of (p)ppGpp in GTP metabolism and in the emergence of bacterial persisters.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center