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PLoS One. 2015 Apr 8;10(4):e0121523. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121523. eCollection 2015.

Antioxidant and angiostatic effect of Spirulina platensis suspension in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

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Department of Histology & Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.



Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many degenerative diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis. Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and curative properties and is also competent of acting as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently anti-angiogenic agent. In the present study, the antioxidant and the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina platensis as well as its anti-angiogenic effect against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat model were tested.


We found that the development of arthritis was concealed; moreover it successfully inhibited the development of macroscopic as well as microscopic and histopathological lesions in AIA rats when compared to control. Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group.


The present study concluded that Spirulina is able to restrain the changes produced through adjuvant-induced arthritis. The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties.

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