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Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015 Mar 31;11:889-94. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S81515. eCollection 2015.

High prevalence of sleep and mood disorders in dry eye patients: survey of 1,000 eye clinic visitors.

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Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.



We aimed to explore the prevalence of probable sleep and mood disorders in eye clinic visitors.


This was a cross-sectional study. The participants were outpatients at six eye clinics from January through March, 2014. Outpatients were invited to complete a questionnaire containing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A final diagnosis was made, and patients were classified into six diagnostic groups. The main outcome measures were the scores of the PSQI and HADS among the diagnostic groups.


A total 1,000 outpatients participated, and 730 patients (mean age 59.5±19.0 years; 487 females) were analyzed after exclusion of children and patients diagnosed with healthy eyes, acute injury, or unilateral pseudophakia. The mean PSQI and HADS scores across all patients were 5.3±3.1 and 9.2±6.2, respectively. For the diagnostic groups, the mean PSQI and HADS scores, respectively, were 5.7±3.3 and 10.2±6.0 for dry eye (n=247), 5.4±3.2 and 9.2±5.7 for bilateral cataracts (n=159), 5.3±3.3 and 8.0±5.3 for bilateral pseudophakia (n=99), and, 5.0±3.1 and 9.8±6.6 for glaucoma (n=109). Overall, 37.3% of patients were poor sleepers (PSQI ≥6), and 45.5% had possible mood disorders (HADS ≥10). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the PSQI and HADS scores were significantly correlated with both age (P<0.05) and the presence of dry eye (P<0.05).


The prevalence of sleep and mood disorders was significantly higher in patients with dry eye. The present results suggest consultation-liaison psychiatry services may be beneficial among eye disease patients.


anxiety; cataract; depression; glaucoma; liaison psychiatry

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