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Food Microbiol. 2015 Aug;49:65-73. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2015.01.015. Epub 2015 Feb 7.

Potential of Lactobacillus curvatus LFC1 to produce slits in Cheddar cheese.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas, Norway. Electronic address: davide.porcellato@nmbu.no.
2
Wisconsin Center for Dairy Research, Madison, WI, USA.
3
Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas, Norway.
4
Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California Davis, CA, USA.
5
Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, USA.

Abstract

Defects in Cheddar cheese resulting from undesired gas production are a sporadic problem that results in significant financial losses in the cheese industry. In this study, we evaluate the potential of a facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli, Lactobacillus curvatus LFC1, to produce slits, a gas related defect in Cheddar cheese. The addition of Lb. curvatus LFC1 to cheese milk at log 3 CFU/ml resulted in the development of small slits during the first month of ripening. Chemical analyses indicated that the LFC1 containing cheeses had less galactose and higher levels of lactate and acetate than the control cheeses. The composition the cheese microbiota was examined through a combination of two culture independent approaches, 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis; the results indicated that no known gas producers were present and that high levels of LFC1 was the only significant difference between the cheese microbiotas. A ripening cheese model system was utilized to examine the metabolism of LFC1 under conditions similar to those present in cheeses that exhibited the slit defect. The combined cheese and model system results indicate that when Lb. curvatus LFC1 was added to the cheese milk at log 3 CFU/ml it metabolized galactose to lactate, acetate, and CO2. For production of sufficient CO2 to result in the formation of slits there needs to be sufficient galactose and Lb. curvatus LFC1 present in the cheese matrix. To our knowledge, facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli have not previously been demonstrated to result in gas-related cheese defects.

KEYWORDS:

Cheddar cheese; Lactobacillus curvatus; Undesirable gas production

PMID:
25846916
DOI:
10.1016/j.fm.2015.01.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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