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Phys Med. 2015 Nov;31(7):757-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmp.2015.03.006. Epub 2015 Apr 3.

Occupational Electromagnetic Fields exposure in Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems - Preliminary results for the RF harmonic content.

Author information

1
Hazardous Agents Department, OHS Directorate, Hellenic Ministry of Labor, Greece; Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Greece. Electronic address: ggourz@ypakp.gr.
2
Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Non-Ionizing Radiation Office, Greece. Electronic address: efthymios.karabetsos@eeae.gr.
3
Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Non-Ionizing Radiation Office, Greece. Electronic address: nskamn@eeae.gr.
4
Director of OHS, Hellenic Ministry of Labor, Greece. Electronic address: antchristodoulou@ypakp.gr.
5
Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Greece. Electronic address: kappas@med.uth.gr.
6
Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Greece. Electronic address: ktheodor@med.uth.gr.
7
Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Greece. Electronic address: tsougos@med.uth.gr.
8
Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Greece. Electronic address: tmaris@med.uoc.gr.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

European legislation concerning the protection of workers from exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) was recently (26.6.2013) completed by Directive 2013/35/ΕU. This Directive is a specific one of the framework Directive 89/391/EEC and part of the overall legislation for Occupational Health and Safety (OHS). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems have played a key role, both in the postponement of the former 2004/40 EMF Directive and in the formation of the latest limits adopted by the new Directive. On the other hand, MRI systems are associated with the exposure of personnel to EMF of various frequencies and modulations, arousing peculiar safety issues. Therefore, we will try to acquire the highly important knowledge of the exact occupational exposure levels, in all working scenarios and practices.

METHODS:

Different MRI systems (1.5 and 3 T) have been chosen for a variety of measurements in order to assess occupational exposure compared to the limits (ALs) of the Directive and to the main OHS principles. Gradient function of MRI systems results in low frequency exposure, while high frequency exposure comes from the application of the RF excitation frequency.

RESULTS:

In most of the cases the RMS and peak value measurements do not exceed the corresponding ALs, apart from a few specific hot spots, manageable through OHS principles.

DISCUSSION:

Complete occupational exposure results can form the basis for dealing with multiple exposures present in MRI systems. Peculiar RF harmonic components, of no safety concern, were detected. Their origin is under examination.

KEYWORDS:

Electromagnetic fields; MRI occupational safety; Occupational health and safety; Risk assessment

PMID:
25843889
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejmp.2015.03.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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