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Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2015 Jun;51:294-9. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.03.019. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Structure-property relationships of iron-hydroxyapatite ceramic matrix nanocomposite fabricated using mechanosynthesis method.

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Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia.
Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy, Bandung 40132, Indonesia.
Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials, Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia; Department of Physics, Institut Sains dan Teknologi Nasional, Jl. Moh. Kahfi II, Jagakarsa, Jakarta Selatan 12640, Indonesia. Electronic address:
Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering & CHU de Québec Research Center, Laval University, Québec City G1V 0A6, Canada. Electronic address:


Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an attractive bioceramics due to its similar composition to bone mineral and its ability to promote bone-implant interaction. However, its low strength has limited its application as load bearing implants. This paper presented a work focusing on the improvement of HAp mechanical property by synthesizing iron (Fe)-reinforced bovine HAp nanocomposite powders via mechanosynthesis method. The synthesis process was performed using high energy milling at varied milling time (3, 6, 9, and 12h). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Its mechanical properties were investigated by micro-Vicker's hardness and compression tests. Results showed that milling time directly influenced the characteristics of the nanocomposite powders. Amorphous BHAp was formed after 9 and 12h milling in the presence of HPO4(2-) ions. Continuous milling has improved the crystallinity of Fe without changing the HAp lattice structure. The nanocomposite powders were found in spherical shape, agglomerated and dense after longer milling time. The hardness and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites were also increased at 69% and 66%, respectively, as the milling time was prolonged from 3 to 12h. Therefore, the improvement of the mechanical properties of nanocomposite was attributed to high Fe crystallinity and homogenous, dense structure produced by mechanosynthesis.


Bovine hydroxyapatite; Hardness; Iron; Milling; Nanocomposite

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