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Med Clin North Am. 2015 May;99(3):521-34. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2015.01.006.

Menopause.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, and VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 South Columbian Way, S-123-PCC, Seattle, WA 98108, USA. Electronic address: traci@u.washington.edu.
2
Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, and VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 South Columbian Way, S-111-HSM, Seattle, WA 98108, USA.

Abstract

Women generally spend the last third of their lifetime in menopause, after their reproductive years have ended. During menopause, women experience a variety of predictable symptoms and conditions related to changes in sex hormone levels and aging. The menopausal transition precedes menopause by several years and is usually characterized by irregularity of the menstrual cycle and by hot flashes and night sweats. After menopause, genitourinary symptoms predominate, including vulvovaginal atrophy and dryness and lower urinary tract symptoms, including urinary frequency, urgency, and nocturia. Hormonal treatment is effective for vasomotor and genitourinary symptoms, but the understanding of its impact on cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, and depression continues to evolve.

KEYWORDS:

Estrogen; Hormone therapy; Hot flashes; Menopause; Vasomotor symptoms; Vulvovaginal atrophy

PMID:
25841598
DOI:
10.1016/j.mcna.2015.01.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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