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Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2015 May;21(5):494-9. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2015.02.019. Epub 2015 Mar 2.

Cognitive and behavioral symptoms in Parkinson's disease patients with the G2019S and R1441G mutations of the LRRK2 gene.

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Department of Neurology, Alava University Hospital, Osakidetza, Spain. Electronic address:
Movement Disorders and Autonomic Unit, Department of Neurology, Cruces University Hospital, Department of Neurosciences, University of the Basque Country, Spain.



To compare the cognitive and psychiatric status of patients with Parkinson's disease related to the G2019S and the R1441G mutations of the LRRK2 gene (LRRK2-PD) and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) patients.


We examined cognition and psychiatric symptoms in 27 patients with LRRK2-PD (12 G2019S and 15 R1441G) and 27 iPD patients.


The groups were similar in age, education, disease duration, levodopa equivalent daily dose, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II-IV; however, the LRRK2-PD showed less impairment on UPDRS-I (2.0 ± 1.7 vs. 4.2 ± 2.8, p = 0.003). The LRRK2-PD presented less frequent subjective cognitive complaints (18.5% vs. 63.0%, p = 0.002), and mild cognitive impairment or dementia (25.9% vs. 59.2%, p = 0.027). They also showed less impairment on scales for general cognition (Mattis dementia rating scale 131.2 ± 10.9 vs. 119 ± 24.0, p = 0.022), episodic verbal memory (Rey's auditory verbal learning test, immediate recall 39.2 ± 9.5 vs. 27.6 ± 12.8 p < 0.001, delayed recall 7.2 ± 3.7 vs. 4.7 ± 4.0 p = 0.022), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (9.7 ± 9.2 vs. 20.5 ± 14.3, p = 0.004, significant differences for apathy and hallucinations). The LRRK2-PD subjects were less frequently treated with antipsychotic medication (0% vs. 25.9%, p = 0.010). There were no significant differences between G2019S and R1441G mutation carriers.


Mutations of the LRRK2 gene might cause PD associated with less cognitive and neuropsychiatric impairment as compared to iPD.


Cognitive impairment; Familial; LRRK2; Neuropsychiatry; Parkinson's disease; R1441G mutation

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