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J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Apr;50(4):515-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.08.019. Epub 2014 Oct 1.

Favorable outcomes in high-risk congenital pulmonary airway malformations treated with multiple courses of maternal betamethasone.

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Fetal Treatment Center, Department of Surgery at The University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Cincinnati Fetal Center, Division of Pediatric, General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Fetal Treatment Center, Department of Surgery at The University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:



Congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAMs) are rare congenital lung lesions often diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound. High-risk cases can result in hydrops and prenatal or postnatal demise. Antenatal betamethasone has resulted in improved survival but it is unclear how to manage patients who do not respond to a single course.


We present a bi-institutional retrospective review of patients treated with multiple courses of prenatal steroids for high-risk CPAMs between 2007 and 2013.


Nine patients met inclusion criteria. All but one either had an increased CPAM volume ratio (CVR) or number of fluid-containing compartments involved after a single course of antenatal betamethasone, prompting additional courses. Four patients stabilized, three improved and two progressed after the second course. The two cases with disease progression underwent an in utero resection. There were one in utero fetal demise and two deaths within the delivery room. Both fetuses that underwent a fetal resection died. All but one mother who delivered a viable fetus had complications of pregnancy.


Multiple courses of antenatal betamethasone for high-risk fetal CPAMs often result in favorable short-term outcomes without the need for open fetal resection. Pregnancy complications are common and women within this cohort should be monitored closely.


CPAM; Congenital cystic adenomatous malformation CCAM; Congenital pulmonary airway malformation; Maternal betamethasone; Prenatal steroids

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