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Prof Inferm. 2015 Jan-Mar;68(1):52-62. doi: 10.7429/pi.2015.681052.

Distraction as a technique to control pain in pediatric patients during venipuncture. A narrative review of literature.

Author information

1
RN, Freelance Nurse, Rome Italy. Correspondence: carlovetriburatti@hotmail.it.
2
MScN, Nursing Department, ASL RM/C, Rome, Italy.
3
PhD, MScN, RN, Public Health Department, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.
4
MScN, RN, Nursing Department, S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Rome, Italy.
5
MScN, MEd, RN, School of Nursing, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.
6
PhD, RN, S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Abstract

in English, Italian

INTRODUCTION:

Distraction is a non-pharmacological intervention aimed to reduce procedural pain in children. Venipuncture is one of the most widely used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in pediatric patients. Analgesia during venipuncture may be efficiently achieved with distracting techniques.

OBJECTIVE:

To describe active and passive distraction techniques to reduce distress in children undergoing venipuncture.

METHOD:

Data from CINHAL, PubMed, ILISI and Cochrane's databases were used to review existing literature and primary and secondary studies published between 2003 and 2014 were included. Queries were obtained with keywords such as distraction, complementary therapies, pain, pediatric, the Boolean operators AND and OR were used.

RESULT:

Twenty eligible articles out of the one hundred and forty-three retrieved (20/143) were selected; among these there were 3 systematic and 5 narrative reviews, 11 experimental and quasi-experimental studies and 1 observational study. Active and passive distraction techniques seemed extremely effective to reduce distress and pain in children undergoing venipuncture. Modest evidence of efficacy and absent side effects support this approach.

CONCLUSION:

Further RCTs are needed to compare the different types of existing active and passive distraction techniques. The presence of parents and the location where painful procedures are administered should be included in the assessment of this approach.

PMID:
25837616
DOI:
10.7429/pi.2015.681052
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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