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Nutrition. 2015 May;31(5):697-702. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.11.012. Epub 2014 Dec 19.

Association of dietary acid load with cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Author information

1
Department of Community Nutrition, Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
2
Department of Nephrology, Isfahan Kidney Diseases Research Center, Isfahan, Iran.
3
Faculty of Community Services, School of Nutrition, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
4
Department of Community Nutrition, Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address: Azadbakht@hlth.mui.ac.ir.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

An association between dietary acid load and cardiovascular disease risk has been reported in epidemiologic studies; however, there are no reports to our knowledge of this association in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary acid load, based on potential renal acid load (PRAL) and protein:potassium ratio (Pro:K) scores, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with DN.

METHODS:

In this cross-sectional study, we randomly enrolled 547 patients with DN. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical and anthropometric measures were assessed using standard methods.

RESULTS:

Participants had a mean age of 66.8 y and body mass index of 24 kg/m(2). After controlling for potential confounders, participants in the low PRAL group had lower hemoglobin (Hb)A1c (5.7% ± 0.5% versus 7.8% ± 0.5%; P = 0.01), triacylglycerols (246.9 ± 2.3 mg/dL versus 257.4 ± 2.3 mg/dL; P = 0.006), systolic blood pressure (103.6 ± 0.7 mm Hg versus 106.1 ± 0.7 mm Hg; P = 0.03), and lower creatinine and fasting blood sugar compared with the high PRAL group. Pro:K was positively related to HbA1c (5.8% ± 0.5% versus 7.6% ± 0.5%; P = 0.03), but inversely associated with low-density lipoprotein and waist circumference.

CONCLUSIONS:

We found that both PRAL and Pro:K were positively related to HbA1c in the setting of DN, whereas other biochemical and kidney-related markers varied with PRAL and Pro:K status. Future studies are warranted to clarify the clinical outcomes of dietary acid load in older populations as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease.

KEYWORDS:

Blood urea nitrogen; Cardiovascular disease; Creatinine; Diabetic nephropathy; Dietary acid load

PMID:
25837215
DOI:
10.1016/j.nut.2014.11.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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