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Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2015 Apr;29(2):205-18, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2014.10.013. Epub 2014 Nov 6.

Diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer.

Author information

1
Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Canada.
2
Division of Urologic Surgery, Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 45 Francis Street, ASB II-3, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address: qtrinh@partners.org.

Abstract

Bladder cancer (BCa) is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history. Most patients (70%) present with superficial tumors (stages Ta, T1, or carcinoma in situ). However, 3 out of 10 patients present with muscle-invasive disease (T2-4) with a high risk of death from distant metastases. Moreover, roughly between 50% and 70% of superficial tumors do recur, and approximately 10% to 20% of them progress to muscle-invasive disease. However, BCa has a relatively low ratio of mortality versus incidence of new cases. In consequence, there is the danger of overdiagnosis and overtreatment.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarkers; Bladder cancer; Cystoscopy; Diagnosis; Imaging; Screening; Staging; Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

PMID:
25836929
DOI:
10.1016/j.hoc.2014.10.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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