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Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2015 Apr;29(2):205-18, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2014.10.013. Epub 2014 Nov 6.

Diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer.

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Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Canada.
Division of Urologic Surgery, Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 45 Francis Street, ASB II-3, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:


Bladder cancer (BCa) is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history. Most patients (70%) present with superficial tumors (stages Ta, T1, or carcinoma in situ). However, 3 out of 10 patients present with muscle-invasive disease (T2-4) with a high risk of death from distant metastases. Moreover, roughly between 50% and 70% of superficial tumors do recur, and approximately 10% to 20% of them progress to muscle-invasive disease. However, BCa has a relatively low ratio of mortality versus incidence of new cases. In consequence, there is the danger of overdiagnosis and overtreatment.


Biomarkers; Bladder cancer; Cystoscopy; Diagnosis; Imaging; Screening; Staging; Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

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