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J Nutr. 2015 May;145(5):1039S-1108S. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.194571. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE).

Author information

1
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD; raitend@mail.nih.gov.
2
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD;
3
Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Veterinary and Biomedical Science and Center for Molecular Immunology and Infectious Disease, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA;
4
Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA;
5
USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Diet, Genomics, and Immunology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD;
6
Agricultural Research Service, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, USDA, Davis, CA;
7
Child and Reproductive Health Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Global Child Health Group, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands;
8
Department of Pediatrics and Global Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; and.
9
TNO, Zeist, The Netherlands.

Abstract

An increasing recognition has emerged of the complexities of the global health agenda—specifically, the collision of infections and noncommunicable diseases and the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. Of particular practical concern are both 1) the need for a better understanding of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence regarding the impact of nutrition on immune function and inflammation; 3) evaluation of the impact of inflammation and clinical conditions (acute and chronic) on nutrition; 4) examination of existing and potential new approaches to account for the impact of inflammation on biomarker interpretation and use; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations. Each WG was tasked with synthesizing a summary of the evidence for each of these topics and delineating the remaining gaps in our knowledge. This review consists of a summary of the INSPIRE workshop and the WG deliberations.

KEYWORDS:

BOND and inflammation/infection; assessment of micronutrient biomarkers; immune function and nutrients; inflammation and nutrition; nutrition biomarkers

PMID:
25833893
PMCID:
PMC4448820
DOI:
10.3945/jn.114.194571
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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