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J Neurophysiol. 2015 Jun 1;113(10):3798-815. doi: 10.1152/jn.00923.2014. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Awake vs. anesthetized: layer-specific sensory processing in visual cortex and functional connectivity between cortical areas.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Neurobiology Curriculum, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina;
2
Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina;
3
INRIA CR Nancy-Grand Est, Team Neurosys, Villers-les-Nancy, France;
4
Department of Anesthesiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina;
5
Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Neurobiology Curriculum, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; and Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina flavio_frohlich@med.unc.edu.

Abstract

During general anesthesia, global brain activity and behavioral state are profoundly altered. Yet it remains mostly unknown how anesthetics alter sensory processing across cortical layers and modulate functional cortico-cortical connectivity. To address this gap in knowledge of the micro- and mesoscale effects of anesthetics on sensory processing in the cortical microcircuit, we recorded multiunit activity and local field potential in awake and anesthetized ferrets (Mustela putoris furo) during sensory stimulation. To understand how anesthetics alter sensory processing in a primary sensory area and the representation of sensory input in higher-order association areas, we studied the local sensory responses and long-range functional connectivity of primary visual cortex (V1) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Isoflurane combined with xylazine provided general anesthesia for all anesthetized recordings. We found that anesthetics altered the duration of sensory-evoked responses, disrupted the response dynamics across cortical layers, suppressed both multimodal interactions in V1 and sensory responses in PFC, and reduced functional cortico-cortical connectivity between V1 and PFC. Together, the present findings demonstrate altered sensory responses and impaired functional network connectivity during anesthesia at the level of multiunit activity and local field potential across cortical layers.

KEYWORDS:

anesthesia; ferret; frequency structure; isoflurane; prefrontal cortex

PMID:
25833839
PMCID:
PMC4473519
DOI:
10.1152/jn.00923.2014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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